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Stroom na tafel resepte


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As ek aan my pa dink, dink ek aan sy hande, verweer en al koud van die aas, en skud my saggies wakker voor dagbreek. "Tyd om te gaan visvang," fluister hy. Sy hande ruik altyd na rook en die see.

Ek is grootgemaak met visvang en die vis wat ons saam in die Golf van Mexiko gevang het. Ons sou vir koningmakriel, jig vir snapper en tjommie vir mahimahi trol. In die brak waters agter ons huis het ons soggens blou krappe gevat en in die skemer vir forel gegooi. Wat ons ook al gehou het, my ma het gewoonlik die aand gekook.

Om gesond te eet behoort nog steeds heerlik te wees.

Teken in op ons daaglikse nuusbrief vir meer wonderlike artikels en lekker, gesonde resepte.

My pa was mal oor visvang, en ek het vir hom gehengel, vir die ure en woorde wat tussen die visvang en die vangs ontketen is. Ons het ons probleme oor verstrengelde lyne ontrafel en maaltyd na ete ingesluip. Na ete het ons ons borde van die beskuldigdebank af geskraap en die vangs van môre gevoed.

Kruis vis saam met haar pa, April 2006, Clinch River, Tennessee | Foto: Justin Walker

Toe kanker my pa vat, het die pastoor 'n vishemp aangehad en ons het bymekaargekom op ons beskuldigdebank-'n eenvoudige wek in 'n no-wake zone. Ons het Dad's Boston Whaler in die Golf gery en kyk hoe sy as in die blou gaap verdwyn. In sy testament het hy vir my stokke en rolle laat staan. Ek het hulle lankal vermy. Vir sewe droë jare kon ek nie 'n lyn natmaak nie.

En toe, eendag, was ek gereed.

Byna.

My pa het my geleer hoe om vis te vang. My ma het my gewys hoe om een ​​te kook. Maar ek het nog nooit geleer wat tussenin moet gebeur nie. Die skoonmaak van my vangs was die ontbrekende skakel, 'n groot gaping tussen water en bord. Ek was nog nooit verantwoordelik vir hierdie noodsaaklike daad nie. Ek het nog nooit bloed aan my hande gevoel nie.

As ek 'n ware hengelaar wou wees, moes ek met die dood reken. Kan ek my plek in die voedselketting besit? Sal dit verander hoe ek oor visvang gevoel het? Kan ek 'n lewe neem en my sterwende aandete in die oë kyk?

Ek het nie geweet of ek kon, of wat dit sou beteken nie.

Maar ek het geweet ek moet probeer.

Ek het alleen na Colorado gevlieg, met 'n 5-gewigstang en 10-gewig vrae. Dit was 'n persoonlike mylpaal, 'n reis wat nie ter wille van my pa, man of seun beplan was nie. Nou, in 'n rivier wat ek self gekies het, sou ek leer om vir my te hengel.

Onder die rand van Pa se visvanghoed het ek in die vloeibare-goue middaglig gestaan ​​en kyk hoe die eensame waters skei en om my saambind. Versigtige forelle en herinneringe waai in die skaduwee. Ek oefen my rolverdeling, maak my lyn reg en vra myself af: Het ek wat nodig is om iets suiwer en mooi dood te maak?

Tot nou toe was dit 'n wesenlike vraag. Die meeste vlieëvissers en kommersiële gidse is godsdienstig vang-en-vrylaat. Maar ek het 'n elegante kamp gevind waar gaste 'n forel op 'n volhoubare manier kan "oes" en dit kan help voorberei vir aandete.

Die Broadmoor -visvangkamp flank Tarryall Creek, wat sy oorsprong het in een van ons land se laaste ongerepte waterskeidings, Colorado's Lost Creek Wilderness. Wilde forel floreer in sy maagdelike waters, op 'n natuurlike dieet van insekte. In vergelyking met forel wat in baie riviere geteel en in voorraad is, word gesê dat forel 'n bietjie harder veg, 'n bietjie helderder smaak. Ek wou geweet het.

Die eerste dag gee die Tarryall vir my reënboë, beekies en 'n pragtige bruin wat ek saggies omhels, dit in die stroom laat sak, voel hoe dit vinniger word en deur my vingers gly. Ek hou van hierdie kortstondige oomblik van loslaat, om aan iets moois te vat en dit te laat wegswem.

Ek het my gids gevra om my te leer hoe om 'n vis skoon te maak, en ek het hom vertel hoekom dit saak maak. Scott Tarrant, 'n buitengewone hengelaar, verstaan. Hy het op 2 -jarige ouderdom sy eie pa aan 'n ongeluk op die Eagle River verloor. Daardie waters het hom sy hele lewe lank agtervolg. As volwasse man het hy daardie rivier met 'n staaf en 'n spoel baie keer gestap voordat hy dit kon gebruik. Eendag was hy gereed. Hy trek forel na pragtige forel uit en gooi hulle almal terug, totdat hy voel die waters het hom terugbetaal. Hy bedank die rivier, stap weg en haal dit nooit weer nie.

Scott Tarrant, hoofgids en bestuurder van The Broadmoor Fishing Camp | Foto: Justin Walker

Scott het my saggies deur die wervels en die stelle afgerig, my laat knoop en in stilte teruggekeer toe ek dit nodig gehad het. In my sak het ek my pa se filetmes gedra, die houthandvatsel wat deur die see en die son gebleik is, die lem papierdun van jare met 'n klip met die hand.

Ek was nie gereed om dit te gebruik nie. Daardie dag het ek alles teruggegooi.

Aan die einde van my tweede dag was ek gereed om 'n vis te neem. Maar die rivier was nie gereed om vir my een te gee nie. Toe die skemer nader kom, het Scott my stok geleen en vir my 'n forel in die dag se laaste lig laat beland. Dit was nie my vis nie, maar dit sou my leer.

Scott het my gewys hoe om dit saggies dood te maak deur op die kieue te druk. Die vis het stil geword, en ek het 'n pyn in my bors gevoel, iets wat moeilik is om te definieer. Ek het al baie visse geneem, maar altyd op 'n afstand, terwyl ek hoor hoe die flap nog steeds goed in die vis groei. Scott merk my swel van emosie op.

'Hierdie vis het sy lewe vir ons gegee,' het hy gesê. 'Dit is 'n wonderlike ding.'

Ek kry 'n lekker plat rivierrots en laat hom deur my praat. Ek plaas pa se mes teen die wit maag, net onder die kieue, en druk. Dit was moeiliker as wat ek gedink het om die vel te breek. Toe ek dit deurboor, het 'n bloedrooi lint bloed oor my vingers gevou. Ek het 'n skoon snit van borsbeen tot stert gemaak en na binne geloer. Die stukke pas so perfek bymekaar, die som en inhoud van die lewe.

'Steek u vinger in en trek alles uit,' het Scott gesê.

Skrywer Kim Cross gebruik haar pa se filetmes | Foto: Justin Walker

Die raaisel stort in my hande. Die lewer, 'n gepoleerde ametis. Die ingewande, 'n glinsterende draad garing. Die klein maag wat bult met 'n kaleidoskoop van nimfe. Ek het nooit geweet darm kan pragtig wees nie.

'Dit is 'n gesonde vis,' het hy gesê.

Ek was bang vir die vooruitsig van wat ek sou voel. Afsku? Spyt? Skuld? Ek was bekommerd dat ek kan gag. Of vries. Of knik en sny myself. Maar dit was nie brutaal nie. Of hartseer. Of eintlik al die vreemde.

Wat ek gevoel het, het my verbaas. Ek het gevoel dat ek visueel verband hou met hierdie vis, hierdie lewe. Ek het dinge gevoel wat ek nooit ooit sou kon voel oor 'n krimp toegedraaide forelfilet nie. Ek sou hierdie vis eet. Sy molekules sou my molekules word. Sy geheue sou ook deel van my wees. Toe kom ek by my op dat behalwe voortplanting, dit verreweg die mees intieme daad is wat twee lewende dinge kan deel. 'N Handeling so oud soos die lewe self.

Ek haal die ingewande uit die klip en sit dit in die rivier. Hulle sou 'n gogga voed, wat 'n vis kon voed, wat eendag 'n man kon voed.

Op die derde dag, onder 'n glinsterende lug, het die rivier homself aan my oorgegee. Ek het my eie goggas gekies en 60 meter lyn deur die lug laat sing, bo die sug van bewegende water. Scott het vir my 'n gelukkige caddis gegee, vasgemaak uit die pels van 'n hond wat hy liefgehad het. Toe hy moes stap, het ek selfvertroue gevoel.

Dis toe dat dit natuurlik gebeur. In 'n skaduryke poel bokant 'n klein waterval, kom 'n skaduwee op. Ek het die haak gesit en voel hoe dit duik en sien hoe my vlieëstaaf buig. As 'n stok so buig, weet jy dat die vis 'n houer is - solank jy dit nie verloor nie.

Ons het saam gedans, ek en die vis. Stokpunt hoog, spanning op die lyn, ek laat dit loop, bring dit terug en laat dit weer loop, net soos my pa my geleer het Toe ek uiteindelik voel hoe die lyn stil word, reik ek na die net. Ek het 'n reënboogforel opgetel -my forel — water met agtergrond wat soos diamante drup.

Dit was die mooiste ding wat ek nog ooit gesien het - olyfvlek met goud en swart, die rooskleurige blos van 'n sylyn, 'n wit maag wat soos mika blink. Ek kniel op die rotsagtige oewer en buk oor my vis, huilend in 'n gevoel van genade.

Ek druk saggies op die kieue, met die wil om dood te maak. Dit het langer geneem as wat ek gehoop het voordat ek die spiere in my hande voel slap voel. My pa se mes kyk in die son terwyl ek sny. Bloed en verwondering stort op die rotse, en ek verwyder die organe stadig. Hierdie maag was nie gevul met goggas nie, maar met plante.

Toe ek die ruggraat skraap, sien ek die hart. 'N Klein rooi gloeilamp - klop nog steeds! Ek het dit in my handpalm vasgehou, opgewonde en kyk hoe dit onmoontlik pols.

In 'n verblindende flits van herinnering was ek terug by my pa se bed, in die oomblikke toe ons naby ons bymekaarkom om te sien hoe sy ou hart wankel. Ek onthou hoe ek by elke asemteug opgehou het en op die einde gewag het. Dit was 'n geskenk, die kans om hierdie oomblik van vreeslike skoonheid met hom te deel.

'U was 'n wonderlike pa,' fluister ek toe. "Ek is lief vir jou. Dit is OK om te gaan."

Hierdie oomblik op die rivier was nie minder diep nie. Warm trane gly van my ken af. My hande was te bloedig om dit af te vee. Ek het gesien hoe hulle in my forel val.

“Dankie, vis,” sê ek.

Waarste gebed wat ek nog ooit gebid het.

Ek was my hande en my vis in die rivier, betower deur die glans in die water en die sterwende lig. In die wervelkolom vang ek my eie weerkaatsing, skrik van wat ek sien. Wegraping. Ek het nog nooit so rou gevoel nie. Ek sou nooit dieselfde wees nie.

Ons het die vis met olyfolie gesalf, gesny, met suurlemoene en tiemie gevul en op 'n kersieplank gebraai. My geheue is dalk nostalgies, maar ek glo my forel het sterker geveg, helderder geproe as enige vis wat ek ooit geken het.

Daardie aand, in die gloed van die vuurput, gee Scott vir my 'n goedkoop bier en 'n fyn sigaar, 'n Kubaan wat hy met 'n blaasvlam aangesteek het. Ek rook nie, maar ek geniet die sigaar.

'U is amptelik deel van die klub,' het hy gesê.

Dit was 'n koue nag, en ek het my vingers voor my lippe gesit om hulle met warm asem te warm. Die reuk daarvan laat my asemhaal. Vir die heel eerste keer in my lewe ruik my eie hande na vis en rook.

Terwyl hy in die Broadmoor -visvangkamp was, het Kim Cross eenvoudige kookkuns geniet wat die skoonheid en delikate geur van die vis gevier het. Hier is twee maklike resepte wat u tuis kan maak om die gees van die kamp vas te vang.

Foto: Justin Walker; Styl: Kaitlyn Duross Walker

As jy nie heel forel kan kry nie, gebruik filette; hulle hoef net ongeveer 4 minute te braai. U kan ook 20 gram bevrore, ontdooide kersies gebruik: Gebruik die vloeistof (moenie dit dreineer nie); prut in stap 1 totdat die vloeistof byna heeltemal verdamp het voordat dit in die port en heuning geroer word.

Foto: Justin Walker; Styl: Kaitlyn Duross Walker

Ons is absoluut mal oor hierdie eenvoudige, vertroostende hash. Dit pas goed met byna alles-die forelresepte, natuurlik ons ​​gegrilde forel met kersiekompote, asook gebraaide hoender, varkkotelette, steak en selfs eiers aan die kant van die son. As u die resep wil begin, kan u die patats 'n dag of twee vooruit bak; dan benodig u slegs ongeveer 15 minute om die gereg saam te trek.

Kim Cross is die New York Times topverkoper-skrywer van Wat in 'n storm staan. "The King of Tides", nog een van haar verhale oor visvang, liefde en verlies, verskyn in The Best American Sports Writing 2016. Lees meer op kimhcross.com.


11 beste gestoomde resepte | Maklike gestoomde resepte

Gestoomde resepte- Die beste deel word beskou as een van die gesondste kooktegnieke, maar dit is dat die stoomproses maklik, gerieflik en vinnig is. U hoef nie in die kombuis te sweet om u bord vol gestoomde groente of 'n filet botterknoffelvis te maak nie. Al wat u nodig het, is 'n paar basiese bestanddele om 'n reeks lekker lekkernye voor te berei (sonder om bekommerd te wees oor die ekstra kalorieë).


Onthou hoe lief u die film van Jon Favreau en#x2019s 2014 gehad het, Sjef? Die akteur/skrywer/regisseur/regisseur wat drievoudig bedreig is, was nie klaar met die plesier in die kombuise nie (of onderweg), en hierdie nuwe dokumentêre reeks van Favreau en Roy Choi (sy medewerker aan die oorspronklike film) is die volgende generasie heerlik vir ons almal. Elke seisoen 1 se 20 episodes bevat 'n heerlike avontuur, van rooibruin saam met Wolfgang Puck tot wild vir die gerookte vis in die beroemde Wexler ’s Deli in Suid -Kalifornië (en selfs 'n besoek met Gwyneth Paltrow). Fantastiese geselskap, heerlike kos, groot pret.

Stroom dit hier: The Chef Show op Netflix


Gedeeltelike woordspraak

Pos.korrekte handleiding

Skep goudstandaarddata vir deel-van-spraak-etikettering deur die voorstelle van die model reg te stel. Die spaCy-model sal gebruik word om voorspellingsetikette te voorspel, wat die aantekening kan verwyder en indien nodig regstel. Dit is dikwels doeltreffender om op 'n paar etikette tegelyk te fokus, in plaas daarvan om alle etikette gesamentlik aan te teken. Die-fynkorrelige vlag maak aantekeninge moontlik van die fynkorrelige etikette, dit wil sê Token.tag_ in plaas van Token.pos_. Let daarop dat dit kan lei tot onverwagte resultate en baie lang etikette vir sommige taalmodelle wat fynkorrelige etikette gebruik wat bestaan ​​uit morfologiese kenmerke, soos spaCy se standaard Italiaanse of Nederlandse modelle.

Hierdie resep het vroeër pos.make-gold genoem. U kan dit steeds met die naam gebruik, maar u moet u kode verander om pos.correct te gebruik.

ArgumentTikBeskrywingVerstek
datastel strProdigy -datastel om aantekeninge in te stoor.
spacy_model strLaai spaCy -model.
bron strPad na teksbron of - om te lees vanaf standaardinvoer.
-laaier, -lo strOpsionele ID van teksbronlaaier. As dit nie ingestel is nie, word die bronlêeruitbreiding gebruik om die laaier te bepaal. Geen
-etiket, -l strEen of meer etikette om aan te teken. Ondersteun 'n komma-geskeide lys of 'n pad na 'n lêer met een etiket per reël. As dit nie ingestel is nie, word alle etikette gewys.
-uitsluit, -e strKomma-geskeide lys met datastel-ID's wat annotasies bevat om uit te sluit. Geen
--onsegmenteer, -U boolMoenie sinne verdeel nie. onwaar
-fynkorrelig, -FG boolGebruik fynkorrelige woordspeletjies, dit wil sê Token.tag_ in plaas van Token.pos_. onwaar

Pos.teach binêre

Versamel die beste moontlike opleidingsdata vir 'n tag-model met 'n woordspeling met die model in die lus. Op grond van u aantekeninge, sal Prodigy besluit watter vrae hy volgende moet stel. Dit is dikwels doeltreffender om op 'n paar etikette tegelyk te fokus, in plaas daarvan om alle etikette gesamentlik aan te teken.

ArgumentTikBeskrywingVerstek
datastel strProdigy -datastel om aantekeninge in te stoor.
spacy_model strLaai spaCy -model.
bron strPad na teksbron of - om te lees vanaf standaardinvoer.
-laaier, -lo strOpsionele ID van teksbronlaaier. As dit nie ingestel is nie, word die bronlêeruitbreiding gebruik om die laaier te bepaal. Geen
-etiket, -l strEtiket (te) om aan te teken. Aanvaar enkele etiket of 'n komma-geskeide lys. As dit nie ingestel is nie, word alle beskikbare etikette teruggestuur. Geen
--tag-kaart, -tm str / Pad Pad na JSON -karteringstabel vir POS -etikette. Lees uit die spaCy tagger -model as dit nie verskaf word nie. Geen
-patrone, -pt strOpsionele pad om by patrone -lêer te pas om entiteite uit te filter. Geen
-uitsluit, -e strKomma-geskeide lys met datastel-ID's wat annotasies bevat om uit te sluit. Geen
--onsegmenteer, -U boolMoenie sinne verdeel nie. onwaar


As-dan-gebaseerde groepering

Oorweeg die volgende deurkruising oor die 'moderne' speelgoedgrafiek:

Die resultaat is 'n ouderdomsverdeling wat bloot toon dat elke 'persoon' in die grafiek 'n ander ouderdom het. In sommige gevalle is hierdie resultaat presies wat nodig is, maar soms moet 'n groepering verander word om 'n ander beeld van die resultaat te gee. Byvoorbeeld, 'n groepering met die waarde "ouderdom" kan beter verteenwoordig word deur 'n domeinbegrip soos "jonk", "oud" en "baie oud".

Let op dat die by -modulator verander is van die gebruik van 'n snaar sleutel van "ouderdom" om 'n Traversal te neem. Die innerlike deurkruising gebruik die keuse wat soos 'n as-dan-anders-klousule is. Die keuse is geneste en lyk soos volg in Java:

Die gebruik van kies is 'n goeie intuïtiewe keuse vir hierdie traversal, aangesien dit 'n natuurlike kartering is vir as-dan-anders, maar daar is 'n ander opsie om saam te kyk:

Die antwoord is dieselfde, maar hierdie deurkruising verwyder die geneste keuse, wat dit makliker maak om te lees.


'N Fees wat geskik is vir 'n koning

Sommige van die beste maaltye ooit word op weggooibare op die kamp bedien. aaron hitchins/rockhouse motion

In Desember 1950 stuur 'n Mississippiaan met die naam John Cullen 'n brief aan koning Gustaf VI Adolf van Swede, waarin hy sy majesteit uitnooi om die volgende herfs te eet in die hertekamp waar Cullen lid was. Die koning het onlangs nog een van die lede van die kamp - William Faulkner - 'n eerbewys, die Nobelprys vir letterkunde, verleen. Cullen wou terugkeer. 'N Gunsteling op die kamp,' coon and collards ', sou deel uitmaak van die spyskaart, het hy geskryf.

Die ete het egter nooit gebeur nie, want die koning het genadiglik geweier. Maar sedert ek baie jare gelede oor die uitnodiging van Cullen gelees het, het ek dit wens. Nie ter wille van die lede nie, wat ongetwyfeld sou sien dat hul jag beperk is deur al die prag en voorbereiding, maar ter wille van die Sweedse monarg. Selfs in sy eenvoudigste manifestasies, is 'n jagkamp-ete, destyds soos nou, 'n unieke en sublieme geleentheid-die naaste afstammeling van die oorspronklike gemeenskaplike etes waar prehistoriese jagters hul doodslag oor 'n vuur verkool het, en waar ek kan byvoeg, die daad storievertelling het amper seker begin.

Ongeag die Nobelpunt, was die hertenkamp van Cullen en Faulkner niks besonders nie: 'n gegalvaniseerde blikstruktuur in die bedompige bodem van die Mississippi Delta met 16 stapelbakke en 'n tydelike kombuis. Hitte kom uit die brandende stompe in 'n hergebruikte oliedrom, en die wyn is tuisgemaak van muskadiedruiwe. Die aandete sou ontwerp wees om net soveel die maag as die verhemelte aan te spreek: Coon en collards, soos Cullen gaargemaakte gebraaide koekies of mieliebrood geadverteer het. Die koning sou homself moes dien, soos ons nou 'gesinsstyl' noem. Van die tafel af moes hy dalk poker chips of 'n blikkie geweerolie uitvee om plek te maak vir sy bord.

Maar laat ons nie rustiek met eenvoudig dink nie - en laat ons hoop dat die koning dit ook nie sou doen nie. Omdat die ondergrondse genot van 'n kampete 'n ingewikkelde en antieke verhoudingsnetwerk is: tussen die jagter en die wild, die belangrikste, maar ook tussen die jagters self, vol kameraadskap en onvermydelike mededinging tussen die jong jagters en die ou tyders en tussen verandering en tradisie.

O, daar is baie nonsens wat by die tafel rondgejaag word. Cullen het graag gedebatteer of dit moontlik is om 'n hert met 'n Hula-Hoop dood te maak. Maar die nonsens is om die erns van die gedeelde strewe teen te werk, die erns van wilde diere wat 'n wilde dood word, die oorspronklike berekening, in Faulkner se woorde, van "wanneer om te skiet en nie te skiet nie, wanneer om dood te maak en wanneer nie om dood te maak nie, en, beter, wat om daarna te doen. ” Die kamptafel is waar alles wat bymekaar kom, waar die oes gedeel word, waar die verhale vertel word (en die oordrywing weerlê word), waar al die uitgebreide pogings wat jag vereis - en hiermee bedoel ek die verkryging van grond of verhuring, vestiging 'n kamp, ​​kerfstyd van werk en gesin, reis, die groot tuig wat die jagter voorafgaan, selfs sy stewels aantrek - kom tot die vasgestelde besluit. Met ander woorde, waar die sirkel gesluit is. Waar 'die beste van alle asemhaling en vir altyd die beste van alle luister', soos Faulkner die daad van jag beskryf, die beste word van eet. En waar 'n ongelukkige siel, koninklik of nie, altyd opgesaal moet word met skottelgoedwas. -Jonathan Miles


Sewe Wild-Turkye resepte op die volgende vlak

Tess Rousey

Behalwe op 'n enkele dag in November, kry kalkoene nie veel speelgoed as tafeltarief nie, wat, as jy my vra, regtig jammer is. Alhoewel dit nie so vet is soos 'n botterbal nie, dra 'n volwasse wildeboom 10 pond vleis of meer. Baie jagters bevoordeel ongetwyfeld die bors, maar die donker, smaakvolle bene en dye is ook wonderlik as hulle reg voorberei word. Hier is sewe kreatiewe en smaaklike resepte wat u saam met u lentetom kan probeer om die wilde gobbler die respek te gee wat dit verdien.

1. Griekse Gevulde Gobbler -bors

'N Mediterreense gunsteling gevulde vleis. Tess Rousey

'N Oornag pekel wat in hierdie resep vereis word, verseker dat die vleis tydens die kookproses klam bly, maar dit is die feta en olywe wat hierdie gevulde kalkoenbors sy helder geur gee. Maak jou eie Griekse geurmiddels deur basiliekruid, gedroogde oregano, marjolein, kruisement en tiemie te meng.

Bestanddele

½ koppie kosher sout (vir pekelwater)

3 koppies vars spinasie

Griekse Gevulde Gobbler Borsbestanddele. Tess Rousey

Maak 'n pekelwater deur die sout en suiker in die warm water te klits totdat dit oplos, en laat die pekel afkoel. Plaas dan die kalkoenbors in die afgekoelde pekelwater, verkoel dit dan en laat dit oornag week.

Nadat die kalkoenbors oornag gesit het, verwyder dit uit die pekelwater en vlinder dit. Doen dit deur die bors plat op 'n snyplank te plaas. Plaas 'n skerp mes parallel met die bord en sny dit in die kant van die bors. Hou aan om die bors in die helfte te sny en stop ongeveer 'n half duim van die ander kant, sodat die bors soos 'n boek oopgaan. Plaas die vlinderbors tussen twee velle plastiekwrap en druk dit tot 'n ewe dikte van 'n half duim.

Berei die vulsel voor deur die olyfolie in 'n pan oor medium hitte te verhit. Voeg die sjalot en knoffel, 'n knippie kosher sout by en kook vir 3 minute. Voeg dan die spinasie in die pan en kook tot net -net verdroog. Verwyder die pan van die hitte en roer die fetakaas en olywe by, saam met die Griekse geursel, die res van die kosher sout en swartpeper.

Smeer die spinasie- en fetavulsel in 'n gelyke laag oor die botter met 'n vlinder en laat 'n rand van ½ duim om die vleis. Begin met die kort kant van die bors, rol die kalkoen in 'n digte silinder en steek die rande vas. Bevestig die broodjie met 'n slagter se tou, vasgemaak met 'n halwe duim.

Rooster of rook die gevulde kalkoen totdat die dikste deel van die vleis 155 grade bereik. Verwyder die kalkoen van die hitte en laat dit 10 minute rus voordat dit gesny word. Lewer 4

2. Turk-Fil-A Sandwich

'N Suider-geïnspireerde kinkel op gebakte kalkoen. Tess Rousey

Na my mening is die hoenderbroodjies van die suidelike kitskosketting, basies soos dit mag wees, hul gewildheid aan een ding te danke: die marinade van piekelsap. Die week gee nie net smaak nie, maar maak ook die hoender - of, in hierdie geval, die kalkoenbors - vol, sodat dit klam en sappig word, selfs nadat dit in warm olie gebraai is.

Bestanddele

3 koppies grondboontjie- of canola -olie

Turk-Fil-A Sandwiches bestanddele. Tess Rousey

Sny die kalkoenbors in drie tot vier stukke dwars, en sny elke stuk in ½ duim dik kotelette. Plaas die kotelette in 'n groot bak of rits sak en giet die piekelsap oor. Verkoel in die yskas en laat dit minstens een uur of, nog beter, oornag marineer.

As u gereed is om die kalkoen te braai, gooi u olie in 'n gietyster-oond of 'n hoë pan tot die olie 'n paar sentimeter diep is. Sit op 'n medium-hoë brander en laat verhit tot 350 grade.

Klits melk en eiers saam in 'n bak. Giet dan die meel in 'n vlak pan en klits die sout, peper, suiker, paprika, cayenne, droë mosterd en koeksoda by.

Verwyder die kalkoenkotelette uit die pekelwater en druk droog. Doop elke kotelet in die melk-eiermengsel en gooi dit dan dadelik in die gekruide meel. Plaas op 'n draadrak en herhaal met die oorblywende kotelette.

As die olie warm is, braai die kalkoenkotelette tot goudbruin en gaar en keer een keer na 3 of 4 minute om. Plaas die gebakte kalkoenkotelette op 'n bord wat met papierhanddoek uitgevoer is.

Smeer intussen die boonste en onderste helfte van die hamburgersbroodjies en rooster dit dan op 'n warm pan. Plaas twee piekelskyfies op die onderste broodjie en bo -op met 'n kalkoenskyfie. Bedek met die boonste helfte van die broodjie en geniet. Lewer 4

3. Turkye-been Gumbo

Die pittige, pikante geur van hierdie gumbo is die wag werd. Tess Rousey

Of jy nou die aftreksel prut of die roux roer, 'n goeie gumbo is 'n stadige aangeleentheid. Voeg die ekstra tyd by wat nodig is om die taai vleis van 'n wilde-kalkoenboud af te breek, en hierdie resep kan u die hele dag neem. Maar vertrou my, sy pittige, pikante geur regverdig die wag nie. Maak seker dat u 'n yskoue Abita byderhand het om die tong daarna af te koel.

Bestanddele

Vir die gumbo:

2 liter hoenderaftreksel

1 14,5 oz. blikkies tamaties gesny

½ pond andouille of gerookte wors, in ½ duim dik gesny

Turkye-been Gumbo-bestanddele. Tess Rousey

Voorverhit die oond tot 275 grade. Sout kalkoenbene mildelik.

Voeg die spekvet by 'n groot Hollandse oond of 'n swaarbraaier wat tot medium hoog is. As die vet warm is, bruin die kalkoenpote een vir een. Voeg die uiekwart by die braaipan en genoeg water om die vleis meer as halfpad te dompel. Plaas die deksel op die Nederlandse oond, of verseël die braaipan styf met foelie en plaas dit in die oond. Braai vir 3 uur, of tot vleis uit kalkoen maklik uit die been trek.

Plaas die bene op 'n snyplank en sif die aftreksel deur 'n fyn maas sif en gooi alle vaste stowwe weg. Hou die voorraad vir die gumbo. Skei die vleis van die tendons en sny dit met 'n vurk of vingers.

Vir die gumbo:

Smelt die botter in 'n Nederlandse oond op medium-hoë hitte. Sodra die botter gesmelt is, voeg genoeg meel by om 'n dik pasta te vorm. Kook onder voortdurend roer tot die roux goudbruin word.

Voeg die seldery, wortels en ui by en kook tot net sag. Giet die voorbehoude kalkoenaftreksel en genoeg hoenderaftreksel om 1 liter te maak, en roer dan die ingemaakte tamaties, cayenne, kosher sout, Worcestershire en witpeper by. Verhoog die hitte tot amper kook, verlaag dit dan tot kookpunt. Kook, af en toe roer, vir 20 tot 30 minute. Eindig met die gesnyde wors en kalkoenvleis en kook nog 15 minute tot alles warm is. Bedien met witrys en Tabasco -sous. Lewer 4

4. Gobbler Empanadas

'N Wilde indruk op die Suid -Amerikaanse klassieke. Tess Rousey

Vleis wat in deeg toegedraai is, is wêreldwyd 'n gunsteling straatkos, maar in Argentinië is empanadas feitlik die nasionale gereg. Hierdie resep vervang die gewone Argentynse beesvleis met gesnyde kalkoen-dye vleis, maar behou die tradisionele gekookte eiers en groen olywe vir 'n outentieke, alhoewel wilde, aanname van die Suid-Amerikaanse klassieke.

Bestanddele

6-8 groen olywe met pimentos, gekap

Gobbler Empanadas bestanddele. Tess Rousey

Voorverhit die oond tot 375 grade. Bring intussen die hoenderaftreksel in 'n medium pot tot kookpunt. Giet dan die kalkoendye, saam met die twee lourierblare, en verlaag die hitte tot skaars 'n prut. Kook vir 30 minute, of tot die dikste deel van die dye 155 grade bereik. Haal die dye uit die aftreksel, laat afkoel en sny die vleis met jou vingers in stukke.

Verhit die botter en olyfolie in 'n groot pan oor medium hoog. Voeg die gerasperde ui by en soteer tot sag. Roer die tamatiepasta by, saam met die gerookte paprika, komyn, kosher sout en rooipepervlokkies. Kook 3 tot 5 minute en voeg dan die gekapte olywe en pimentos, gekookte eiers en gekapte kalkoen by.

Lê die blaardeegvel op 'n toonbank wat liggies met meel bestrooi is. Sny die vel in 'n omgekeerde bak in 6-duim-ronde. Plaas 1 tot 2 eetlepels. van die empanada -vulsel op elke ronde. Smeer die rand van die deeg met eierwas en vou om. Maak die rande toe deur dit aanmekaar te knyp of met 'n vurk vas te druk. Maak 'n klein spleet bo -op elke empanada en borsel dit met die oorblywende eierwas. Plaas die empanadas op 'n bakplaat en kook vir 20 tot 25 minute, of tot goudbruin. Lewer 4

5. Turkye – Tamatiewors

Moenie dat die kalkoen in die kruidenierswinkel u na hierdie ou gunsteling afskakel nie. Tess Rousey

Kruideniersware in 'n kruidenierswinkel kry 'n slegte omhulsel as 'n swak alternatief vir beesvleis, maar om u eie gemaalde vleis van die bene en dye van 'n wilde kalkoen te maak, is 'n goeie manier om die bron te respekteer. Daar is baie vleis in die onderste helfte van 'n voël, en die afskilfering is eenvoudig. Die moeilikste is weliswaar om die vleis te skei van die baie tendons op die drumpels, maar dit is die moeite werd.

Bestanddele

3 pond gemaalde kalkoen (vleis van been en dy)

18 oz. fles songedroogde tamaties, in blokkies gesny

¼ koppie verpakte, gekapte spinasie

1 koppie yswater, indien nodig

Turkye – Tamatieworsbestanddele. Tess Rousey

Meng die kalkoen en varkvleis in 'n groot bad. Klits die droë bestanddele saam en versprei dit eweredig oor die vleis. Voeg die ui, songedroogde tamaties en spinasie by en meng alles deeglik. Maal die vleis deur die growwe bord van die grinder, gevolg deur 'n tweede maal deur die fyn bord.

Meng die wors deeglik met 'n vleismenger of met jou hande, en voeg indien nodig yswater by totdat die gemaalde vleis taai begin word. Miskien moet u nog 'n bietjie water byvoeg totdat 'n vuis vleis deur u vingers druk.

Spoel en week die varkhokjies volgens die aanwysings op die verpakking.

Laai die vleis in 'n worsvulsel, of in 'n maalmasjien met 'n vulbuis, en steek die vleis in die varkhulsies. Meet die wors in 6-duim-lengtes, draai elke ander 6-duim om skakels te vorm. Hang of plaas die skakels oornag op rakke in die yskas om droog te word en laat die geure ontwikkel.

Stroper of rooster die worsies tot 'n interne temperatuur van 155 grade. Lewer 4

6. Tom Scallopini

Turkye borste is perfek om te braai. Tess Rousey

As dit gesny en in dun medaljes gesny word, is kalkoenborsies 'n natuurlike middel vir ligte brood en pannekoek. Kulture regoor die wêreld het hierdie manier van voorbereiding van hoender, kalfsvleis en ja, selfs kalkoen vervolmaak, hetsy vir schnitzel, piccata of parma. Maar 'n Italiaanse scallopini is moeilik om te klop. As u die geluk het om morele byderhand te hê, stuur dit dan hier in, maar enige eetbare sampioen sal dit regkry.

Bestanddele

¼ koppie Madeira of ander droë kookwyn

Vars tiemie en pietersielie, gekap

Tom Scallopini bestanddele. Tess Rousey

Maak 'n pekelwater deur die suiker en sout in warm water te klits tot dit opgelos is. Laat die pekel afkoel. Plaas die kalkoenbors in die afgekoelde pekelwater, plaas dan in die yskas en week dit oornag.

Sny die kalkoenbors in drie tot vier stukke van ongeveer 'n sentimeter dik. Draai elke stuk kalkoen in plastiekwrap en gebruik 'n vleishamer, deegroller of onderkant van 'n swaar koekpan om dit in cut duim dik stukkies te sny.

Sit 'n gietysterpannetjie, of 'n swaar oondvaste pan, oor medium hitte. Voeg 2 eetlepels by. olyfolie in die pan. Klits die meel en sout en peper na smaak op 'n vlak bord of tertpan. Gooi dan die kalkoen in meel, skud die oortollige af en plaas elke stuk in die warm pan. Kook, draai elke 8 minute of so tot albei kante effens bruin is. Kook in groot hoeveelhede, voeg meer olyfolie by indien nodig. Plaas die kotelette op 'n bord in 'n warm oond.

Voeg 2 eetlepels by. olyfolie in die pan, saam met knoffel, sampioene en sjalot. Roer en laat kook vir ongeveer 2 minute.

Voeg die wyn en aftreksel by die pan. Verhoog die hitte tot kookpunt, en verwyder bruin stukkies van die bodem van die pan. Kook vir ongeveer 5 tot 8 minute, of tot die vloeistof met die helfte verminder het. Roer die suurlemoensap en gekapte kruie by. Giet die kotelette terug in die pan en maak seker dat hulle bedek is met die vloeistof. Bedien oor gaar pasta en bedek met gerasperde Parmigiano-Reggiano-kaas. Lewer 4

7. Saffraan-en-jogurt-kalkoenspies

Die eksotiese spesery pas goed by die gladde tikkie Griekse jogurt. Tess Rousey

Die soet gras van die wêreld se mees eksotiese speserye pas perfek by die gladde tikkie Griekse jogurt. As 'n bonus, help die ensieme van die suiwel om taai spiervesels af te breek terwyl die vleis oornag marineer. As jy nie saffraan het nie, is 'n teelepel borrie in die knyp.

Bestanddele

2 lb. kalkoenbors en dyvleis

1 klein knippie saffraandrade

Saffraan-en-jogurt Tom Skewers-bestanddele. Tess Rousey

Breek die saffraan in 'n medium bak en los dit op in warm water. Voeg die ui, olyfolie, suurlemoensap, sout, peper en jogurt by. Klits om goed te meng.

Sny die kalkoenborsies en dye in vierkante stukke van 1 duim. Plaas die vleis in 'n rits sak en giet die saffraan-jogurt mengsel oor. Seal the bag, removing as much air as possible, and refrigerate overnight.

Start a pile of charcoal briquettes, or pre-heat your propane grill to medium-high. As the grill heats, thread the turkey onto skewers. Oil the grill grates with a paper towel soaked in vegetable oil, then place the skewers on the hot grill. Cook, turning occasionally, until the turkey is cooked through, for about 10 minutes. Lewer 4

Grilling tip: The sugar in the yogurt can burn quickly and make a mess of your grill. Do as they do in the Middle East and suspend the skewers over the fire by placing each end on a brick.


Fertilizer (4 Hours):
Mixed Herb and Earth

Flour (4 Hours):
Wheat and Stone

Fine Powder (5 Hours):
Charcoal and Salt Peter

Paste (5 Hours):
Dust and Oil

Cement (8 Hours):
Stone and Clay

Glass (8 Hours):
Sand and also Fire

Dough (8 Hours):
Flour and Water

Limestone (8 Hours):
Seashell and Stone

Magic Concentrate (8 Hours):
Magic and Magic

Worm (8 Hours):
Fertilizer and Bacteria

Jumping and (10 Hours):
Magic Concentrate and Air

Forge Bucket (10 Hours):
Ceramic and Clay

Planting Soil (10 Hours):
Red Earth and Moss

Hardened Glass (10 Hours):
Glass and Glass

Clay Pot (10 Hours):
Soft Pot and Fire

Boom Powder (10 Hours):
Fine Powder and Sulfur

Boom Stick (10 Hours):
Boom Powder and Bamboo

Unpolished Mirror (10 Hours):
Hardened Glass and Clay

Red Paint (10 Hours):
Paste and Rose

Blue Paint (10 Hours):
Paste and Blueberry

Green Paint (10 Hours):
Paste and Moss

Ceramic (12 Hours):
Limestone and also Cement

Mini Eggs (12 Hours):
Bacteria and Pond Water

Sulfur (12 Hours):
Fertilizer and Limestone

Green Butterfly (24 Hours):
Mixed Herb and Worm

Orange Butterfly (24 Hours):
Orange and Worm

Blue Butterfly (24 Hours):
Blueberry and Worm

Red Butterfly (24 Hours):
Strawberry and Worm


Centrality

There are many measures of centrality which are meant to help identify the most important vertices in a graph. As these measures are common in graph theory, this section attempts to demonstrate how some of these different indicators can be calculated using Gremlin.

Degree Centrality

Degree centrality is a measure of the number of edges associated to each vertex. The following examples use the modern toy graph:

Calculation of degree centrality which counts all incident edges on each vertex to include those that are both incoming and outgoing.

Calculation of in-degree centrality which only counts incoming edges to a vertex.

Calculation of out-degree centrality which only counts outgoing edges from a vertex.

The previous examples all produce a single Map as their output. While that is a desirable output, producing a stream of Map objects can allow some greater flexibility.

For example, use of a stream enables use of an ordered limit that can be executed in a distributed fashion in OLAP traversals.

Betweeness Centrality

Betweeness centrality is a measure of the number of times a vertex is found between the shortest path of each vertex pair in a graph. Consider the following graph for demonstration purposes:

Starting from each vertex in the graph…​

…​traverse on both - incoming and outgoing - edges, avoiding cyclic paths.

Create a triple consisting of the first vertex, the last vertex and the length of the path between them.

Determine whether a path between those two vertices was already found.

If this is the first path between the two vertices, store the triple in an internal collection named "triples".

Keep only those paths between a pair of vertices that have the same length as the first path that was found between them.

Select all shortest paths and unfold them.

Count the number of occurrences of each vertex, which is ultimately its betweeness score.

Closeness Centrality

Closeness centrality is a measure of the distance of one vertex to all other reachable vertices in the graph. The following examples use the modern toy graph:

Defines a Gremlin sack with a value of one.

Traverses on both - incoming and outgoing - edges, avoiding cyclic paths.

Create a triple consisting of the first vertex, the last vertex and the length of the path between them.

Determine whether a path between those two vertices was already found.

If this is the first path between the two vertices, store the triple in an internal collection named "triples".

Keep only those paths between a pair of vertices that have the same length as the first path that was found between them.

For each vertex divide 1 by the product of the lengths of all shortest paths that start with this particular vertex.

Eigenvector Centrality

A calculation of eigenvector centrality uses the relative importance of adjacent vertices to help determine their centrality. In other words, unlike degree centrality the vertex with the greatest number of incident edges does not necessarily give it the highest rank. Consider the following example using the Grateful Dead graph:

The traversal iterates through each vertex in the graph and for each one repeatedly group counts each vertex that passes through using the vertex as the key. The Map of this group count is stored in a variable named "m". The out() traversal is repeated thirty times or until the paths are exhausted. Five iterations should provide enough time to converge on a solution. Calling cap('m') at the end simply extracts the Map side-effect stored in "m".

The entries in the Map are then iterated and sorted with the top ten most central vertices presented as output.

The previous examples can be expanded on a little bit by including a time limit. The timeLimit() prevents the traversal from taking longer than one hundred milliseconds to execute (the previous example takes considerably longer than that). While the answer provided with the timeLimit() is not the absolute ranking, it does provide a relative ranking that closely matches the absolute one. The use of timeLimit() in certain algorithms (e.g. recommendations) can shorten the time required to get a reasonable and usable result.

PageRank Centrality

While not technically a recipe, it’s worth noting here in the "Centrality Section" that PageRank centrality can be calculated with Gremlin with the pageRank()-step which is designed to work with GraphComputer (OLAP) based traversals.


Excel offers 3 levels of "protection":

  • Document: allows you to set a password on a complete spreadsheet, allowing changes to be made only when that password is entered.
  • Worksheet: offers other security options: you can disallow inserting rows on a specific sheet, disallow sorting, .
  • Cell: offers the option to lock/unlock a cell as well as show/hide the internal formula.

Make sure you enable worksheet protection if you need any of the worksheet or cell protection features! This can be done using the following code:

Document

An example on setting document security:

Note that there are additional methods setLockRevision and setRevisionsPassword which apply only to change tracking and history for shared workbooks.

Worksheet

An example on setting worksheet security:

If writing Xlsx files you can specify the algorithm used to hash the password before calling setPassword() like so:

The salt should nie be set manually and will be automatically generated when setting a new password.

An example on setting cell security:


The Recipes Project

In a 2015 episode of Draai, a US Revolutionary War TV drama on AMC, George Washington’s spy Abraham Woodhull uses a special ink made with alum to write secret messages under the shells of hard-boiled eggs. The technique was also advertised on the show’s Twitter in 2014, a year before the episode aired (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Teaser tweet before the airing of the episode. Image via AMC Twitter.

Draai is based on a 2006 book by Alexander Rose called Washington’s Spies: The Story of America’s First Spy Ring, but there is no mention in the book of any such technique. Instead, it seems to come from a 2009 book by John A. Nagy, Invisible Ink: Spycraft of the American Revolution. That book describes an ink that is able to permeate the shell of a hard-boiled egg, leaving the message hidden inside and no trace of writing on the shell. It is not attributed to George Washington and his spies, however, but to Giambattista della Porta. Nagy writes:

“In the fifteenth century Italian scientist Giovanni Porta described how to conceal a message in a hard-boiled egg. An ink is made with an ounce of alum and a pint of vinegar. This special penetrating ink is then used to write on the hard-boiled egg shell. The solution penetrates the shell leaving no visible trace and is deposited on the surfaced of the hardened egg. When the shell is removed, the message can be read.” (John A. Nagy, Invisible Ink: Spycraft of the American Revolution, 2009: 7)

Nagy’s account of della Porta’s recipe seems in turn to have come from 1999 book by Simon Singh called The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography. Singh, however, leaves it unclear whether the egg is to be hard-boiled or raw when one writes on it:

“In the fifteenth century, the Italian scientist Giovanni Porta described how to conceal a message within a hard-boiled egg by making an ink from a mixture of one ounce of alum and a pint of vinegar, and then using it to write on the shell. The solution penetrates the porous shell, and leaves a message on the surface of the hardened egg albumen, which can be read only when the shell is removed.” (Simon Singh, The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography, 1999: 10)

Singh’s description of della Porta’s recipe only appears in the first edition of The Code Book. In later editions it is missing without comment. The reason might be found by reading della Porta himself, who in Book 16 chapter 4 of his Natural Magic mentions the technique, but neither claims to have invented it nor to have gotten it to work:

“Africanus teaches thus: ‘grind [oak] galls and alum with vinegar, until they have the viscosity of ink. With it, inscribe whatever you want on the egg and once the writing has been dried by the sun, place the egg in sharp brine, and having dried it, cook it, peel, and you will find the inscription.’ I put it in vinegar and nothing happened, unless by ‘brine’, he meant sharp lye, what’s normally called capitellum” (della Porta, Magia Naturalis 16.4: Latin 1590, English 1658)

Della Porta attributes the recipe to Africanus, probably Sextus Julius Africanus, a 2nd–3rd century CE traveler, writer and chronicler, whose recipe for an egg-permeating ink is preserved in the 10th century Greek compilation known as the Geoponica, of which della Porta’s recipe is a literal Latin translation. Unlike Singh’s or Nagy’s recipe, della Porta’s includes oak gall (an ingredient often found in inks as a pigment) and lacks precise measurements.

The measurements and techniques described by Singh seem similar to a recipe printed on page 143 of the 1973 New Earth Catalogue (Figures 2 and 3):

Figure 2: The New Earth Catalogue: Living Here and Now, ed. Scott French and Gnu Publishing, New York: Putnam Berkley Press, 1973. Image via MareMagnum.

Figure 3: P. 143 (detail, via Google Books Snippet View) of The New Earth Catalog: Living Here and Now. This recipe uses half the amount of vinegar. It also mentions that a small brush is to be used and says to boil the egg for 15 minutes. None of these details are in Singh’s or in della Porta’s version.

This recipe shares a strong family resemblance to a one published by the USDA in 1965, whose purpose was to get children to eat more eggs. We know this because the USDA’s suggestion was picked up by the New York Times and published on page 14 of the 29 May 1965 issue (Figure 4):

Figure 4: P. 14 (detail) of 29 May 1965 New York Times with an invisible ink recipe attributed to the USDA.

Sometime between 10 and 20 years earlier, either in 1946 or 1959, a similar version similarly targeted to children was published in volume 14 of Richards Topical Encyclopedia, an encyclopedia ordered by theme that was sold door to door in the US (Figure 5).

Figure 5: P. 136 (detail) of volume 14 of Richards Topical Encyclopedia, published either in 1946 or 1959.

Another 10 (or 20) years before that, we find the recipe on page 58 and 132 of the February 1936 issue of American Druggist. A reader from Oregon asks for the recipe of a solution used to mark eggs. The editor replies that the “trick” is described ‘in Henley’s “Book of Recipes”.’ (Figure 6)

Figure 6: P. 58 and 132 (detail) of February 1936 issue of American Druggist.

The editor’s recipe is not obviously the one “Oregon” was after (it includes neither sugar nor acid) but the details are familiar: 1 oz alum, 8 oz (= 1 cup = 1/2 pint) vinegar, a small, pointed brush, 15 minutes boiling. Some details are new: we’re told the brush should be camel’s hair (I will come back to this in the sequel).

The editor of American Druggist also gives a source: Henley’s “Book of Recipes”. The Norman W. Henley Publishing company was active in the United States in the early 20th century and beginning in 1907 published almost yearly editions of an extremely popular book of household recipes: Henley’s Twentieth Century Book of Recipes, Formulas and Processes: Containing Nearly Ten Thousand Selected Scientific, Chemical, Technical and Household Recipes, Formulas and Processes for Use in the Laboratory, the Office, the Workshop and in the Home By Gardner D. Hiscox.

I checked the 1907 edition of Henley’s, but found nothing. I continued looking for references to the recipe closer in time to the American Druggist issue to refine the search. I found two earlier instances: page 97 of the January 1930 issue of Popular Science, and (slightly earlier) page 110 of the September 1929 issue of Field and Stream, where it is referred to as ‘an old hex trick’ (Figures 7 and 8):

Figure 7: P. 97 (detail) of January 1930 issue of Popular Science. Figure 8: 1985 reprint of p. 110 of September 1929 issue of Field and Stream.

If Henley’s was the ultimate source, the recipe had to have appeared sometime before 1929. I checked the 1925 edition, but it was nowhere to be found. The next edition was published in 1929, the same years as the Field and Stream resep. There it was on page 786 (Figures 9 and 10):

Figure 9: P. 786 (detail) of Henley’s, the 1925 edition. No recipe. Figure 10: P. 786 (detail) of Henley’s, the 1929 edition, with the earliest version the author could find of this recipe.

The recipe contains many of the characteristics of the one that has been passed down in American lore and attributed in one form or another to George Washington’s spies or Giambattista della Porta: 1 oz. alum, ½ pint vinegar, a small brush, 15 minutes of boiling.

Given the reach of Henley’s “Book of Recipes” in the US, this is not surprising. But Henley’s recipe also lacks a key ingredient from the recipe that della Porta attributed to Africanus: oak gall. How and when this ingredient dropped out from a recipe reliably passed down for over a thousand years is another story.

This post continues a study of how a 3rd century recipe for a magic ink, despite the fact that it probably never worked, still managed to work its way into American popular culture in the 20th and 21st centuries. An earlier part of the study is posted here.

A valuable ancient commodity: Miltos of Kea

The island of Kea in the North Cyclades is by some travel agents’ reckoning the (rich) Athenians’ ‘best-kept secret’, their beautifully-designed stone-built villas merging seamlessly with the barren landscape overlooking the blue Aegean Sea (Fig 1).

Fig. 1 Private house in Orkos, looking east. To the SE on can see the island of Kythnos. (c) Effie Photos-Jones

The scenery is even more spectacular in the south and in the east of the island. Although sparsely populated today, this area was from the mid of the 19 th century and well into the early part of the 20 th century, a hive of activity, on account of the extensive underground workings of the seams of lead and iron ores. Today, miners’ cottages stand derelict, perhaps waiting for a buyer to convert them into holiday homes. But the ground underneath Petroussa, Orkos or Trypospilies (Fig 2 map) is riddled with galleries, some dating as early as the 4 th century BCE. These early galleries were opened with one aim in mind: to access miltos (Fig. 3c).

Fig. 2. A map of Kea with its four ancient city states and the miltos names Orkos, Petroussa, Trypospilies. (c) Effie Photos-Jones

The material they called miltos is a composite one consisting of naturally fine iron oxides (hematite/goethite) with small amounts of calcite, quartz and clay minerals. It made its first appearance in the Bronze Age Linear B clay tablets as mi-to-we-sa. The Mycenaeans, acutely aware of colours, had many names for red, miltos being, we think, a red with a deep purple hue. It would be many centuries before Kea miltos would surface again in the literary record, always as the colour red but also as a whole host of materials whose colour merited that name. In the 4 th century BCE Theophrastus (On Stones, 52) tells us that builders and joiners used it to draw a line with, workers in shipyards used it for ship maintenance and if the miltos came from the island of Lemnos, then it was used as a medicine, as well, and against ‘poison’.

From the above it is clear that miltos was a valuable commodity. But how valuable? An Athenian decree carved on a marble inscription found in the Athenian Agora and dated c. 360 BCE tells us exactly how valuable. The decree was issued by Athens to all the three city states of Kea (Ioulis, Korisseia and Karthaia (Fig. 2) requiring each one of them to export miltos in its entirety from their respective mines, exclusively to Athens also for the Keans to bear the charges for the transport and only in an Athenian boat! The tone is severe and the penalties dire. The decree appears to openly invite a slave to denounce his master, if the latter is suspected of selling his miltos to a third party. It stipulates that the slave would be gaining not only his freedom but would also receive half of his masters’ estate!

Another contemporary inscription, more informative than severe, also from Athens mentions miltos mixed with pitch, the miltopissa. And at an even later date (3 rd century CE), the author of an agricultural manual, recommends miltos for pest control. It suggests miltos should be smeared around the roots of trees ‘to prevent trees and vines from being harmed by worms or anything else’.

So what was the rationale behind all these diverse uses of miltos? was it a case of ‘since we have it …we might as well use it!’ or did antiquity have a more subtle understanding of this valuable natural material which has so far eluded us? We have been investigating….

As was mentioned miltos consists of very fine iron oxides with particle sizes ranging in the nanosized range. There are also impurities of lead, zinc, copper and arsenic within. But beyond its mineral components, Kean miltos also had an organic load. By that we mean microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and other which live around miltos, are feeding on miltos and also alter the environment around it (Fig 3). We became aware of these microorganisms through DNA sequencing of the miltos samples. Given that red Kean miltos was never heated but used in the ‘as was’ state it is almost certain that these microorganisms would have been carried along with the minerals. When the microorganisms died, they would release biomolecules (secondary metabolites), many of which are known to have numerous beneficial properties, as antibacterials, antifungals, antioxidants or other.

The diagram below (Fig. 4) gives a schematic illustration of the dual nature of Kean miltos, as a combination of both a biotic (microorganisms and biomolecules) and an abiotic (elements, nanoparticles, minerals) component. It is the ‘intersection’ between the two components that gives rise to miltos’ diverse applications.

Fig. 4. Miltos’ diverse properties deriving from their biotic and abiotic components. (c) Effie Photos-Jones

Wanneer miltos is mixed with resin or pitch and applied on wood it is the toxic trace elements within which would inhibit the growth of deleterious biofilms. The same mixture could be used as pest control, by preventing the growth of microorganisms/ insects threatening tree health. If on the other hand, when miltos was mixed with water, the toxic trace elements within, mostly insoluble, would have little effect. Instead, it would be its biome, in the shape of bacteria which help the growth of plants, by making nutrients bioavailable at the root level, which would render miltos a good fertiliser. In short, each application appears, to have called upon and with confidence, either the biotic or abiotic component of miltos depending on the ‘problem’ at hand. No wonder the Athenians were taking no chances with the Keans and their miltos.

We have for long considered miltos a good and ‘special’ red pigment. But all along, it has been way more than that. The Athenians had made a shrewd assessment of this natural material and as an all-powerful city state they imposed their might on their allies. With the demise of the Athenian hegemony in the region, the importance of Kean miltos faded only to give prominence to that of Cappadocia traded through its Black Sea port of Sinope (Sinopic miltos).

Lytle, E. (2013). Farmers Into Sailors: Ship Maintenance, Greek Agriculture, and the Athenian Monopoly on Kean Ruddle (IG II 2 1128). Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 53(3), 520-550.

Photos-Jones, E., Cottier, A., Hall, A. J., & Mendoni, L. G. (1997). Kean Miltos: The well-known iron oxides of antiquity. The Annual of the British School at Athens, 92, 359-371.

Photos-Jones, E. et al. (2018). Greco-Roman mineral (litho) therapeutics and their relationship to their microbiome: The case of the red pigment miltos. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 22, 179-192.

EPJ is a Senior Honorary Researcher at the University of Glasgow at the Schools of Humanities and of Earth and Geographical Sciences. She has been researching the metals and industrial minerals of the Greco-Roman world for over 40 years and more recently their pharmacological applications

Cherries Galore in a Cesspit

As an archaeobotanist, an archaeologist specialised in studying plant remains found in archaeological excavations, I aim to reconstruct and interpret the relationships between humans and plants in the past. Archaeological plant remains, also known as subfossil plant remains, help us to reconstruct the former landscape and inform us how humans exploited it and even transformed the vegetation. Archaeobotanists do not necessarily study one time period, nor a specific region or topic. They can study plant remains from the Palaeolithic or the 20 th century, and everything in between. They can focus on one specific site, work across the country or continent, and even work worldwide. They can delve into topics such as natural vegetation, forestation, domestication, trade, food consumption and much more. The one thing that all of this has in common is the link between humans and plants. But most archaeobotanists do specialize, most notably in the plant parts they study, such as fruits, seeds, pollen, wood or phytoliths. And most archaeobotanists have a beloved time period, favourite region or topic that they find most intriguing. In my case my research focuses on early modern Dutch urban food consumption.

I study what people ate in early modern Dutch cities, and how this changed through time. The best way to study what people ate in the past, is to look at their excrement and kitchen refuse, both of which can be found in the archaeologists treasure trove: the cesspit. These latrines were used to empty one’s bowels, but also served as a place to discard kitchen refuse and household waste. The content of a cesspit consists of organic remains from plants and animals, inorganic (culinary) material culture such as earthenware, glassware and ceramics, but also wooden cups and plates, as well as (decorative) objects, personal belongings and much, much more.

Figure 1: A selection of faunal and floral items found in a late medieval cesspit sample from Groningen. Photo: Dirk Fennema.

The content of an archaeobotanical cesspit sample consists of, among others, floral remains in different shapes and sizes (Figure 1). The items are sorted with the use of a microscope (Figure 2) and identified on a species level (and sometimes even on the level of species variety) by using a reference collection (Figure 3). The Groningen Institute of Archaeology offers a wonderful digital, open access, reference collection, see https://www.plantatlas.eu/.

Figure 2: A peek through the microscope. Visible is a fragment of text and different seeds and fruits, taken from an early modern Delft cesspit sample. Photo: Merit Hondelink.

When the content of a cesspit sample is analysed, sorted and identified, the interpretation begins. What can these plant remains tell us about past human-plant relationships? Most plant species are interpreted in a standardized way: wild plants inform us about the vegetation composition, make-up of soils and hydrology, whilst agricultural weeds in particular inform us about the crops grown and their local, regional, international or even global provenance. Wild but poisonous or toxic plants inform us about potential medicinal applications. A majority of plant species found in cesspits are classified as economic plants, grown as a food crop or cultivated for other useful purposes, such as fibres for textiles or seeds for oil. Identifying edible plants helps us better understand what plants people used for food and which parts people consumed. It also helps us better understand how food was prepared in the past, as preparation marks can be left behind on seeds and fruits.

Some preparation marks are easier to identify than others: nuts need to be cracked to get to the seed apple seeds may be sliced when cutting up an apple, cereals can be ground, resulting into fragmented bran. But sometimes the archaeobotanist finds fragmented plant parts that, at a first glance, do not make sense.

Figure 3: A small selection of the tubes from the archaeobotany reference collection housed at the Groningen Institute of Archaeology (GIA) at the University of Groningen. Photo via GIA.

I have come across dozens and sometimes hundreds (or even more) cherry stones and plum stones in a single cesspit sample. No surprise there, cherries and plums were grown in local orchards, sold in the market and consumed with gusto. Most of these stones will have been discarded in the cesspit as a result from eating the fruits and spitting out the stones, or after de-pitting the fruits for dinner preparation. Only a small percentage is assumed to have been accidentally swallowed and secreted as excrement. Still, archaeobotanists find many fragments of cherry and plum stones (Figure 4). This is something that raises questions when you think about it. Why would these sturdy fruit stones be fragmented? A more pressing question when you are aware that the Rosaceae family, among others also including almond, peach, and even apple, contains – to varying degrees – hydrocyanic acid, also known as hydrogen cyanide and sometimes called prussic acid. The seed coat and fruit wall protects the consumer from digesting this acid, which can be poisonous when consumed. So why would someone break the stones of these fruits?

Figure 4: Two fragments of cherry stones found in an early modern cesspit in Vlissingen. Photo: Merit Hondelink.

To test the assumption that cherry stones were fragmented intentionally, and not through, for instance, pressure, an experiment was devised. Cherries were bought at the farmer’s market and taken to a physics lab to measure the pressure required to fragment the stones. After a number of tests, the calculated force to fragment a cherry stone averaged 23,9 kg or 239 Newton (Graph 1). This makes it more plausible that the stones were intentionally fragmented, as opposed to – for instance – fragmentation due to soil pressure.

Graph 1: Force needed to fragment a cherry stone. On the vertical axis the force (N), on the horizontal axis the elongation (μm). The point where the line falls is the moment the cherry stone breaks (max. force – max. elongation).

Consulting early modern cookbooks provided me with a list of recipes requiring the cook to de-stone cherries for the preparation of jams, sauces, syrups and tarts. Delicious experiments ensued, but I did not manage to fragment cherry stones whilst cutting and de-stoning, pressing through a cloth or colander, or by just baking the fruit with stones in a tart in the oven. Working a batch of cherries with a mortar and pestle did the job, though. But than you would have to pick the fragmented stones from the mushy cherries: not ideal at all. Picking up the eighteenth century encyclopaedia compiled by Noël Chomel gave me the hint I needed. In the Dutch version of his Dictionnaire œconomique (Algemeen huishoudelijk-, natuur-, zedekundig- en konst- woordenboek), he mentions different recipes for preparing cherries. Two recipes for cherry liquor instruct the reader to fragment the cherry stones by using a mortar and pestle (Figure 5). The fragmented fruits, including the stones and (I assume) the seeds are added to the brandy (Dutch: brandewijn) and, after closing the bottle, the mixture is put in the sun to infuse. Adding spices such as cinnamon, cloves and sugar is optional, according to the author.

Figure 5: How to make a pleasant cherry liquor (Noël Chomel, 1778).

So, it is plausible that the fragmented cherry stones found in early modern cesspits are the result of the domestic production of cherry liquor. Other fruits, such as plums and peaches, are also used to make a fruity liquor according to Chomel’s encyclopedia. However, what happens to the acid contained in the seeds? That requires further research. It might be that the prescribed infusing in the sunlight helps denature the acid into harmless molecules, leaving only the (bitter) taste behind. This line of research will be undertaken come summer with the aid of a brewer and some chemical analysis. In the meantime, a cherry and cinnamon flavoured lemonade is my poison of choice. Onderstebo!

A Roman Vegetarian Substitute for Fish Sauce

Roman cookery has been one of my research interests since the 1980s I’ve accumulated a large repertoire of ancient recipes and usually do at least one live demonstration a year. Most of the recipes include garum of liquamen – fish sauce – as a taste enhancer, providing salt and umami. Whilst finding fish sauce is fairly easy nowadays in Britain (the Romans used the same techniques to make it as the modern Thai and Vietnamese), using it at demonstrations disappoints vegetarians who would otherwise like to sample the plant-based dishes.

I found the answer to this problem in a Late Antique agricultural treatise:

Liquamen from pears: Ritually pure liquamen (liquamen castimoniale) from pears is made like this: Very ripe pears are trodden with salt that has not been crushed. When their flesh has broken down, store it either in small casks or in earthenware vessels lined with pitch. When it is hung up [to drain] after the third month without being pressed on, the flesh of the pears discharges a liquid with a delicious taste but a pastel colour. To counter this, mix in a proportion of dark-coloured wine when you salt the pears.
– Palladius: Opus Agriculturae 3.25.12

Liquamen castimoniale must have been required for people observing certain religious strictures (castimoniale means ‘to do with religious ceremonies’). Why would ordinary liquamen have been thought unsuitable? Was it the fish? (Pliny the Elder writes of a special fish sauce for Jews (Natural History 31.95) that he calls garum castimoniarum, although he’s obviously got the wrong end of the stick when it comes to Jewish food laws because he says it’s made using fish without scales). Alternatively, was it because liquamen was the product of fermentation? Fermentation was often considered a form of decomposition, which might have led it to be regarded as ritually unclean.

This has a bearing on how we interpret the recipe. Although Palladius tells us the ingredients to use (whole pears and salt, plus optional red wine) he does not give any information about the relative proportions. This leaves us with two possible techniques. Either you use a high proportion of salt and effectively create a brine utilising the juice of the pears, or you use a low proportion and promote a lactic fermentation by incubating the mix a suitable temperature (although Palladius doesn’t mention this). When used to flavour food, the product of the first method adds a strong taste of salt but no umami. The second would add some umami but also acidity, but a much lower amount of salt. However, if the problem was the fermentation itself, the second method would have been as unacceptable as standard fish sauce.

I’ve had a go at the lactic fermentation method, using 2% of the weight of the pears in salt, but when I tried it, the mix went mouldy before fermentation had a chance to take hold. I’ve had much more success with the first method and have repeated it enough times to get a consistent product. The best pears to use are juicy varieties with very tannic skins, like Williams (also known as Bartlett) and Comice. I mash up the pears – stalks, skins, cores and all – mix them with 25% – 50% of their weight in coarse sea salt (I don’t bother with the wine), and leave them at the back of the fridge in a glass jar with the lid only lightly screwed on. At the end of two months (unlike us, the Romans counted inclusively), the pulp has started to separate out. The heavier elements form a pale layer at the bottom of the jar, whilst the top part of the mixture is more liquid and is a pale pinkish-brown. When drained through a nylon sieve, the colour of the resulting liquid is a very pale version of the colour of fish sauce.

I’ve tried various proportions of salt, and found that, if you use 50%, you seem to get more liquid, probably because the mixture doesn’t draw in moisture from the air to the same extent. But a smaller percentage of salt allows more of the delightful pear flavour comes through – I find it much more difficult to detect in the 50% version. Stored in a clean bottle it will keep for months without refrigeration.

Figure 1: The pear liqumen is in the flask with dark blue trim


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