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Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion

Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion


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Hierdie universele versoeter is Réunion se grootste uitvoergewas

Suikerriet wag op verwerking by die Bois Rouge sucrerie.

Suikerriet is die belangrikste broninkomste vir die eiland Réunion in die Indiese Oseaan, wat tussen 40 en 50 persent van die totale jaarlikse uitvoer van hierdie Franse departement verteenwoordig.

Die Bois Rouge sucrerie, of suikerfabriek, in Saint-André produseer die helfte van die suiker op die eiland. Die ander helfte kom van die eiland se enigste ander sucrerie, Le Gol, naby Saint-Louis in die suidooste. Suikerriet benodig son en humiditeit, albei is volop aan die oostelike kus van die eiland. Réunion se eRcane -navorsingsentrum het 10 rietvariëteite ontwikkel deur middel van natuurlike hibridisering, wat pas by die klimaatvariasies.

Elke fabriek ontvang jaarliks ​​'n bietjie minder as 1 miljoen ton suikerriet, gewoonlik tussen Junie en Desember, en lewer ongeveer 100,000 ton suiker. Sowat 1700 boere voorsien riet vir Bois Rouge, wat op sy beurt witsuiker en vier soorte bruinsuiker produseer.

Nadat die suiker verwerk is, bly daar drie byprodukte oor: melasse, wat gedistilleer word in rum van industriële kwaliteit (die ambaglike rhum agricole word gemaak van rietsap); vesel, genaamd bagasse, verbrand deur die eiland se termiese kragstasie om energie te produseer; en skuim, of écume, die onsuiwerhede wat uit die suikersap onttrek word, wat as kunsmis gebruik word.


Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion - resepte

Die suikerbedryf van Puerto Rico

Die industriële gebied van Puerto Rico

deur Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane is deur Christopher Columbus van die Kanariese Eilande na die Nuwe Wêreld gebring en in 1515 vanaf Santo Domingo op die eiland Puerto Rico ingebring om op die oewer van die Toa -rivier by die Crown se proefplaas te verbou.

Die eerste maalmeul is in 1523 in Tomas de Castellin in Aasco gestig en is met osse bedryf. Vanaf 1548 begin honderde meulens wat deur waterkrag (norias) vervaardig word, om moscabadosuiker te maak. Die bedryf was in die hande van klein grondeienaars wie se ondernemings daarin geslaag het of misluk het, afhangende van die suikerprys in die mark of die grille van die Spaanse kroon.

Die eerste "sentrale" of fabrieke met toerusting wat deur stoom bedryf word, is tussen 1873 en 1876 gestig - waardeur die suikerkristalle in sentrifuges van die melasse geskei is. Die masjinerie is in Engeland of Frankryk gekoop. Die verouderde kleiner meulens (trapiches) het verdwyn na die einde van slawerny in 1873.

Die eerste fabriek wat gemoderniseer is deur sy grondbesit uit te brei, was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) en kort daarna gevolg deur Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada) en Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), en Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruïnes van die sentrale San Vicente 1984.

By die 1882 -uitstalling in Ponce ontvang twee eienaars goue en ere -medaljes vir die suiker van hoë gehalte wat met die nuwe proses verkry is: dit was Vadi en die Cabrera Brothers van die Boca Chica hacienda naby Ponce. Maar in 1882 was daar nog net vyf of ses sentra op die eiland Puerto Rico.

Sentraal Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Sentraal San Vicente 1960.

Nadat soewereiniteit in 1898 na die VSA oorgedra is, het die bedryf gegroei met die impuls van die suikerbelange van die vasteland. Sedertdien tot die lente van 2000, toe Coloso gesluit het na sy laaste oes, was suikerriet die belangrikste kontantoes van die eiland Puerto Rico. Die bedryf sukkel deur die twintigste eeu met markpryskompetisie, 'n afnemende en duur arbeidsmag, die koste van vervoer, die suikerkwotastelsel en die behoefte om die grond te bemes en besproei, so erg dat dit uiteindelik bankrot geraak het. In 1936 was daar ongeveer 43 sentrale wat onder 'n suikerkwota van 909.445 kort ton werk (2.000 lbs of netto ton). Dit is ingestel deur die Jones-Costigan Act, wat Puerto Rico in staat gestel het om die rou produk na die VSA te stuur sonder om belasting te betaal .

Vier -en -dertig sentrale het hul bedrywighede gestaak tussen 1942 en 1977. Die grootste het nog 'n dekade oorleef: Cambalache (Arecibo) en Guñica (Ensenada) het in 1981 gesluit om gevolg te word deur Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, en uiteindelik Coloso en Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. 'n Bedryf en lewenswyse het tot 'n einde gekom. Die "kolonos" of boere wat die gewasse geplant en na die fabriek gestuur het om verwerk te word, het hul pogings amper nooit vergoed toe hulle suiker verkoop het nie. Die groeitydperk van die gewas het gewoonlik veertien maande of langer geduur, van plant gedurende die laaste vier maande van die jaar tot die maal begin het na Januarie. Dit was nodig om elke vier jaar of so te herplant. Die meeste rou suiker is na raffinaderye aan die ooskus gestuur, maar in die tweede helfte van die eeu het Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig en San Francisco verfyningsmasjinerie aangeskaf. Die werkers het die eiland na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlaat vir voltydse werk en beter lone elders, en die kolono's het die suikerbedryf laat vaar.

Sentraal San Vicente siendo desmantelada.

José R. Abad skryf in 1882 die einde voor, toe hy waarneem dat die eienaars daarop aangedring het om uit te brei (kapitaalinvestering) deur kragtiger masjinerie en landerye aan te skaf, elke klein landbougrond op te neem en dus ander vorme van landbou uit te skakel en uiteindelik te herverdeel die rykdom van die land tot nadeel van die sosiale welstand van die eiland. As ons terugkyk, kan ons sê dat veranderinge sou kom met die grille van 'n meer moderne eeu en die herbesinning oor die keuses wat onder 'n ander stel omstandighede gemaak is.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Sentrale in werking in 1940, ligging (naaste dorp) en datum waarop hulle gesluit is: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana Daz (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) en San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES:
1. Handleiding vir suikerondernemings. Farr & amp Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: het die huidige konstellasie van 1493-1955. Redaksie van die Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion - resepte

Die suikerbedryf van Puerto Rico

Die industriële gebied van Puerto Rico

deur Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane is deur Christopher Columbus na die nuwe wêreld gebring deur Christopher Columbus, en in 1515 vanaf Santo Domingo op die eiland Puerto Rico ingebring om op die oewer van die Toa -rivier by die Crown se proefplaas verbou te word.

Die eerste maalmeule is in 1523 in Tomas de Castellin in Aasas gestig en is met osse bedryf. Vanaf 1548 begin honderde meulens wat deur waterkrag (norias) vervaardig word, om moscabado -suiker te maak. Die bedryf was in die hande van klein grondeienaars wie se ondernemings daarin geslaag het of misluk het, afhangende van die suikerprys in die mark of die grille van die Spaanse kroon.

Die eerste "sentrale" of fabrieke met toerusting wat deur stoom bedryf word, is tussen 1873 en 1876 gestig - waardeur die suikerkristalle in sentrifuges van die melasse geskei is. Die masjinerie is in Engeland of Frankryk gekoop. Die verouderde kleiner meulens (trapiches) het na die einde van slawerny in 1873 verdwyn.

Die eerste fabriek wat gemoderniseer is deur sy grondbesit uit te brei, was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) en kort daarna gevolg deur Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada) en Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), en Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruïne van die sentrale San Vicente 1984.

By die 1882 -uitstalling in Ponce ontvang twee eienaars goue en ere -medaljes vir die suiker van hoë gehalte wat met die nuwe proses verkry is: dit was Vadi en die Cabrera Brothers van die Boca Chica hacienda naby Ponce. Maar in 1882 was daar nog net vyf of ses sentra op die eiland Puerto Rico.

Sentraal Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Sentraal San Vicente 1960.

Nadat soewereiniteit in 1898 na die VSA oorgedra is, het die bedryf gegroei met die impuls van die suikerbelange van die vasteland. Sedertdien tot die lente van 2000, toe Coloso gesluit het na sy laaste oes, was suikerriet die belangrikste kontantoes van die eiland Puerto Rico. Die bedryf het deur die twintigste eeu gesukkel met markpryskompetisie, 'n afnemende en duur arbeidsmag, die koste van vervoer, die suikerkwotastelsel en die behoefte om die grond te bemes en besproei, so erg dat dit uiteindelik bankrot geraak het. In 1936 was daar ongeveer 43 sentrale wat onder 'n suikerkwota van 909.445 kort ton werk (2.000 lbs of netto ton). Dit is ingestel deur die Jones-Costigan Act, wat Puerto Rico in staat gestel het om die rou produk na die VSA te stuur sonder om belasting te betaal .

Vier -en -dertig sentrale het hul bedrywighede gestaak tussen 1942 en 1977. Die grootste het nog 'n dekade oorleef: Cambalache (Arecibo) en Guñica (Ensenada) het in 1981 gesluit om gevolg te word deur Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, en uiteindelik Coloso en Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. 'n Bedryf en lewenswyse het tot 'n einde gekom. Die "kolonos" of boere wat die gewasse geplant en na die fabriek gestuur het om verwerk te word, het hul pogings amper nooit vergoed toe hul suiker verkoop is nie. Die groeitydperk van die gewas het gewoonlik veertien maande of langer geduur, van plant gedurende die laaste vier maande van die jaar tot die maal begin het na Januarie. Dit was nodig om elke vier jaar of so te herplant. Die meeste rou suiker is na raffinaderye aan die ooskus gestuur, maar in die tweede helfte van die eeu het Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig en San Francisco verfyningsmasjinerie aangeskaf. Die werkers het die eiland na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlaat vir voltydse werk en beter lone elders, en die kolono's het die suikerbedryf laat vaar.

Sentraal San Vicente siendo desmantelada.

José R. Abad skryf in 1882 die einde voor, toe hy waarneem dat die eienaars daarop aangedring het om uit te brei (kapitaalinvestering) deur kragtiger masjinerie en landerye aan te skaf, elke klein landbougrond op te neem en dus ander vorme van landbou uit te skakel en uiteindelik te herverdeel die rykdom van die land tot nadeel van die sosiale welstand van die eiland. As ons terugkyk, kan ons sê dat veranderinge kom met die grille van 'n meer moderne eeu en die herbesinning oor die keuses wat onder 'n ander stel omstandighede gemaak is.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Sentrale in werking in 1940, ligging (naaste dorp) en datum waarop hulle gesluit is: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana Daz (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) en San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES:
1. Handleiding vir suikerondernemings. Farr & amp Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: het die huidige konstellasie van 1493-1955. Redaksie van die Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion - resepte

Die suikerbedryf van Puerto Rico

Die industriële gebied van Puerto Rico

deur Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane is deur Christopher Columbus na die nuwe wêreld gebring deur Christopher Columbus, en in 1515 vanaf Santo Domingo op die eiland Puerto Rico ingebring om op die oewer van die Toa -rivier by die Crown se proefplaas verbou te word.

Die eerste maalmeule is in 1523 in Tomas de Castellin in Aasas gestig en is met osse bedryf. Vanaf 1548 begin honderde meulens wat deur waterkrag (norias) vervaardig word, om moscabado -suiker te maak. Die bedryf was in die hande van klein grondeienaars wie se ondernemings daarin geslaag het of misluk het, afhangende van die suikerprys in die mark of die grille van die Spaanse kroon.

Die eerste "sentrale" of fabrieke met toerusting wat deur stoom bedryf word, is tussen 1873 en 1876 gestig - waardeur die suikerkristalle in sentrifuges van die melasse geskei is. Die masjinerie is in Engeland of Frankryk gekoop. Die verouderde kleiner meulens (trapiches) het verdwyn na die einde van slawerny in 1873.

Die eerste fabriek wat gemoderniseer is deur sy grondbesit uit te brei, was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) en kort daarna gevolg deur Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada) en Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), en Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruïne van die sentrale San Vicente 1984.

By die 1882 -uitstalling in Ponce het twee eienaars goue en ere -medaljes ontvang vir die hoë kwaliteit suiker wat met die nuwe proses verkry is: dit was Vadi en die Cabrera Brothers van die Boca Chica hacienda naby Ponce. Maar in 1882 was daar nog net vyf of ses sentra op die eiland Puerto Rico.

Sentraal Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Sentraal San Vicente 1960.

Nadat soewereiniteit in 1898 na die VSA oorgedra is, het die bedryf gegroei met die impuls van die suikerbelange van die vasteland. Sedertdien tot die lente van 2000, toe Coloso gesluit het na sy laaste oes, was suikerriet die belangrikste kontantoes van die eiland Puerto Rico. Die bedryf het deur die twintigste eeu gesukkel met markpryskompetisie, 'n afnemende en duur arbeidsmag, die koste van vervoer, die suikerkwotastelsel en die behoefte om die grond te bemes en besproei, so erg dat dit uiteindelik bankrot geraak het. In 1936 was daar ongeveer 43 sentrale wat onder 'n suikerkwota van 909.445 kort ton werk (2.000 lbs of netto ton). Dit is ingestel deur die Jones-Costigan Act, wat Puerto Rico in staat gestel het om die rou produk na die VSA te stuur sonder om belasting te betaal .

Vier -en -dertig sentrale het hul bedrywighede gestaak tussen 1942 en 1977. Die grootste het nog 'n dekade oorleef: Cambalache (Arecibo) en Guñica (Ensenada) het in 1981 gesluit om gevolg te word deur Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, en uiteindelik Coloso en Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. 'n Bedryf en lewenswyse het tot 'n einde gekom. Die "kolonos" of boere wat die gewasse geplant en na die fabriek gestuur het om verwerk te word, het hul pogings amper nooit vergoed toe hulle suiker verkoop het nie. Die groeitydperk van die gewas het gewoonlik veertien maande of langer geduur, van plant gedurende die laaste vier maande van die jaar tot die maal begin het na Januarie. Dit was nodig om elke vier jaar of so te herplant. Die meeste rou suiker is na raffinaderye aan die ooskus gestuur, maar in die tweede helfte van die eeu het Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig en San Francisco verfyningsmasjinerie aangeskaf. Die werkers het die eiland na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlaat vir voltydse werk en beter lone elders, en die kolono's het die suikerbedryf laat vaar.

Sentraal San Vicente siendo desmantelada.

Jos R. Abad skryf in 1882 die einde voor, toe hy waarneem dat die eienaars daarop aangedring het om uit te brei (kapitaalinvestering) deur kragtiger masjinerie en landerye aan te skaf, elke klein landbougrond op te neem en dus ander vorme van landbou uit te skakel en uiteindelik te herverdeel die rykdom van die land tot nadeel van die sosiale welstand van die eiland. As ons terugkyk, kan ons sê dat veranderinge sou kom met die grille van 'n meer moderne eeu en die herbesinning oor die keuses wat onder 'n ander stel omstandighede gemaak is.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Sentrale in werking in 1940, ligging (naaste dorp) en datum waarop hulle gesluit is: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana Daz (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) en San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES:
1. Handleiding vir suikerondernemings. Farr & amp Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: het die huidige konstellasie van 1493-1955. Redaksie van die Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion - resepte

Die suikerbedryf van Puerto Rico

Die industriële gebied van Puerto Rico

deur Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane is deur Christopher Columbus van die Kanariese Eilande na die Nuwe Wêreld gebring en in 1515 vanaf Santo Domingo op die eiland Puerto Rico ingebring om op die oewer van die Toa -rivier by die Crown se proefplaas te verbou.

Die eerste maalmeul is in 1523 in Tomas de Castellin in Aasco gestig en is met osse bedryf. Vanaf 1548 begin honderde meulens wat deur waterkrag (norias) vervaardig word, om moscabado -suiker te maak. Die bedryf was in die hande van klein grondeienaars wie se ondernemings daarin geslaag het of misluk het, afhangende van die suikerprys in die mark of die grille van die Spaanse kroon.

Die eerste "Sentrale" of fabrieke met toerusting wat deur stoom bedryf word, is tussen 1873 en 1876 gestig - waardeur die suikerkristalle in sentrifuges van die melasse geskei is. Die masjinerie is in Engeland of Frankryk gekoop. Die verouderde kleiner meulens (trapiches) het na die einde van slawerny in 1873 verdwyn.

Die eerste fabriek wat gemoderniseer is deur sy grondbesit uit te brei, was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) en kort daarna gevolg deur Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada) en Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), en Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruïnes van die sentrale San Vicente 1984.

By die 1882 -uitstalling in Ponce het twee eienaars goue en ere -medaljes ontvang vir die hoë kwaliteit suiker wat met die nuwe proses verkry is: dit was Vadi en die Cabrera Brothers van die Boca Chica hacienda naby Ponce. Maar in 1882 werk daar nog net vyf of ses sentra op die eiland Puerto Rico.

Sentraal Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Sentraal San Vicente 1960.

Nadat soewereiniteit in 1898 na die VSA oorgedra is, het die bedryf gegroei met die impuls van die suikerbelange van die vasteland. Sedertdien tot die lente van 2000, toe Coloso gesluit het na sy laaste oes, was suikerriet die belangrikste kontantoes van die eiland Puerto Rico. Die bedryf sukkel deur die twintigste eeu met markpryskompetisie, 'n afnemende en duur arbeidsmag, die koste van vervoer, die suikerkwotastelsel en die behoefte om die grond te bemes en besproei, so erg dat dit uiteindelik bankrot geraak het. In 1936 was daar ongeveer 43 sentrale wat onder 'n suikerkwota van 909.445 kort ton werk (2.000 lbs of netto ton). Dit is ingestel deur die Jones-Costigan Act, wat Puerto Rico in staat gestel het om die rou produk na die VSA te stuur sonder om belasting te betaal .

Vier -en -dertig sentrale het hul bedrywighede gestaak tussen 1942 en 1977. Die grootste het nog 'n dekade oorleef: Cambalache (Arecibo) en Guñica (Ensenada) het in 1981 gesluit om gevolg te word deur Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, en uiteindelik Coloso en Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. 'n Bedryf en lewenswyse het tot 'n einde gekom. Die "kolonos" of boere wat die gewasse geplant en na die fabriek gestuur het om verwerk te word, het hul pogings amper nooit vergoed toe hulle suiker verkoop het nie. Die groeitydperk van die gewas het gewoonlik veertien maande of langer geduur, van plant gedurende die laaste vier maande van die jaar tot die maal begin het in Januarie. Dit was nodig om elke vier jaar of so te herplant. Die meeste rou suiker is na raffinaderye aan die ooskus gestuur, maar in die tweede helfte van die eeu het Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig en San Francisco verfyningsmasjinerie aangeskaf. Die werkers het die eiland na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlaat vir voltydse werk en beter lone elders, en die kolono's het die suikerbedryf laat vaar.

Sentraal San Vicente siendo desmantelada.

Jos R. Abad skryf in 1882 die einde voor, toe hy waarneem dat die eienaars daarop aangedring het om uit te brei (kapitaalinvestering) deur kragtiger masjinerie en landerye aan te skaf, elke klein landbougrond op te neem en dus ander vorme van landbou uit te skakel en uiteindelik te herverdeel die rykdom van die land tot nadeel van die sosiale welstand van die eiland. As ons terugkyk, kan ons sê dat veranderinge kom met die grille van 'n meer moderne eeu en die herbesinning oor die keuses wat onder 'n ander stel omstandighede gemaak is.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Sentrale in werking in 1940, ligging (naaste stad) en datum waarop dit gesluit is: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) en San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES:
1. Handleiding vir suikerondernemings. Farr & amp Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: het die huidige konstellasie van 1493-1955. Redaksie van die Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion - resepte

Die suikerbedryf van Puerto Rico

Die industriële gebied van Puerto Rico

deur Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane is deur Christopher Columbus na die nuwe wêreld gebring deur Christopher Columbus, en in 1515 vanaf Santo Domingo op die eiland Puerto Rico ingebring om op die oewer van die Toa -rivier by die Crown se proefplaas verbou te word.

Die eerste maalmeul is in 1523 in Tomas de Castellin in Aasco gestig en is met osse bedryf. Vanaf 1548 begin honderde meulens wat deur waterkrag (norias) vervaardig word, om moscabadosuiker te maak. Die bedryf was in die hande van klein grondeienaars wie se ondernemings daarin geslaag het of misluk het, afhangende van die suikerprys in die mark of die grille van die Spaanse kroon.

Die eerste "sentrale" of fabrieke met toerusting wat deur stoom bedryf word, is tussen 1873 en 1876 gestig - waardeur die suikerkristalle in sentrifuges van die melasse geskei is. Die masjinerie is in Engeland of Frankryk gekoop. Die verouderde kleiner meulens (trapiches) het na die einde van slawerny in 1873 verdwyn.

Die eerste fabriek wat gemoderniseer is deur sy grondbesit uit te brei, was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) en kort daarna gevolg deur Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada) en Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), en Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruïnes van die sentrale San Vicente 1984.

By die 1882 -uitstalling in Ponce het twee eienaars goue en ere -medaljes ontvang vir die hoë kwaliteit suiker wat met die nuwe proses verkry is: dit was Vadi en die Cabrera Brothers van die Boca Chica hacienda naby Ponce. Maar in 1882 werk daar nog net vyf of ses sentra op die eiland Puerto Rico.

Sentraal Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Sentraal San Vicente 1960.

Nadat soewereiniteit in 1898 na die VSA oorgedra is, het die bedryf gegroei met die impuls van die suikerbelange van die vasteland. Sedertdien tot die lente van 2000, toe Coloso gesluit het na sy laaste oes, was suikerriet die belangrikste kontantoes van die eiland Puerto Rico. Die bedryf het deur die twintigste eeu gesukkel met markpryskompetisie, 'n afnemende en duur arbeidsmag, die koste van vervoer, die suikerkwotastelsel en die behoefte om die grond te bemes en besproei, so erg dat dit uiteindelik bankrot geraak het. In 1936 was daar ongeveer 43 sentrale wat onder 'n suikerkwota van 909.445 kort ton werk (2.000 lbs of netto ton). Dit is ingestel deur die Jones-Costigan Act, wat Puerto Rico in staat gestel het om die rou produk na die VSA te stuur sonder om belasting te betaal .

Vier -en -dertig sentrale het hul bedrywighede gestaak tussen 1942 en 1977. Die grootste het nog 'n dekade oorleef: Cambalache (Arecibo) en Guñica (Ensenada) het in 1981 gesluit om gevolg te word deur Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, en uiteindelik Coloso en Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. 'n Bedryf en lewenswyse het tot 'n einde gekom. Die "kolonos" of boere wat die gewasse geplant en na die fabriek gestuur het om verwerk te word, het hul pogings amper nooit vergoed toe hul suiker verkoop is nie. Die groeitydperk van die gewas het gewoonlik veertien maande of langer geduur, van plant gedurende die laaste vier maande van die jaar tot die maal begin het na Januarie. Dit was nodig om elke vier jaar of so te herplant. Die meeste rou suiker is na raffinaderye aan die ooskus gestuur, maar in die tweede helfte van die eeu het Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig en San Francisco verfyningsmasjinerie aangeskaf. Die werkers het die eiland na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verlaat vir voltydse werk en beter lone elders, en die kolono's het die suikerbedryf laat vaar.

Sentraal San Vicente siendo desmantelada.

José R. Abad skryf in 1882 die einde voor, toe hy waarneem dat die eienaars daarop aangedring het om uit te brei (kapitaalinvestering) deur kragtiger masjinerie en landerye aan te skaf, elke klein landbougrond op te neem en dus ander vorme van landbou uit te skakel en uiteindelik te herverdeel die rykdom van die land tot nadeel van die sosiale welstand van die eiland. As ons terugkyk, kan ons sê dat veranderinge kom met die grille van 'n meer moderne eeu en die herbesinning oor die keuses wat onder 'n ander stel omstandighede gemaak is.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Sentrale in werking in 1940, ligging (naaste stad) en datum waarop dit gesluit is: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) en San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES:
1. Handleiding vir suikerondernemings. Farr & amp Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: het die huidige konstellasie van 1493-1955. Redaksie van die Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Suiker is noodsaaklik vir die eiland Réunion - resepte

Die suikerbedryf van Puerto Rico

Die industriële gebied van Puerto Rico

deur Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane is deur Christopher Columbus na die nuwe wêreld gebring deur Christopher Columbus, en in 1515 vanaf Santo Domingo op die eiland Puerto Rico ingebring om op die oewer van die Toa -rivier by die Crown se proefplaas verbou te word.

Die eerste maalmeul is in 1523 in Tomas de Castellin in Aasco gestig en is met osse bedryf. Vanaf 1548 begin honderde meulens wat deur waterkrag (norias) vervaardig word, om moscabadosuiker te maak. Die bedryf was in die hande van klein grondeienaars wie se ondernemings daarin geslaag het of misluk het, afhangende van die suikerprys in die mark of die grille van die Spaanse kroon.

The first "Centrales" or factories with equipment operated by steam were established from 1873 to 1876 - whereby the sugar crystals got separated from the molasses in centrifuges. The machinery was purchased in England or France. The outmoded smaller mills (trapiches) vanished after the end of slavery in 1873.

First factory to modernized by expanding its land holdings was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) and was soon followed by Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada), and Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), and Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruinas de la central San Vicente 1984.

At the 1882 Exposition in Ponce, two owners received gold and honorary medals for the high quality sugar obtained with the new process: these were Vadi and the Cabrera Brothers from the Boca Chica hacienda close to Ponce. But in 1882 there were still only five or six centrales working in the island of Puerto Rico.

Central Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Central San Vicente 1960 .

After sovereignty was transferred to the US in 1898, the industry grew with the impetus of the sugar interests from the mainland. From then until the Spring of 2000, when Coloso closed after its last harvest, sugar cane was the most important cash crop of the island of Puerto Rico. The industry struggled through the XX century with market price competition, a diminishing and expensive labor force, the cost of transportation, the sugar quota system and the need to fertilize and irrigate the land, so harsh that eventually became bankrupt. In 1936 there were approximately 43 centrales operating under a sugar quota of 909,445 short tons (2,000 lbs or net ton) This had been established by the Jones-Costigan Act, which allowed Puerto Rico to ship the raw product to the USA without payment of duty.

Thirty four centrales ceased operations between 1942 and 1977. The largest survived for another decade: Cambalache (Arecibo) and Gu nica (Ensenada) closed in 1981 to be followed by Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, and finally Coloso and Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. An industry and a way of life came to an end. The "colonos" or farmers who planted the crops and sent it to the factory to be processed, hardly ever saw their efforts compensated at the time their sugar was sold. The growing period for the crop usually took fourteen months or more, from planting during the last four months of the year until grinding began following January. It was necessary to replant every four years or so. Most raw sugar was shipped to refineries in the East Coast but by the second half of the century Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig and San Francisco had acquired refining machinery. The workers abandoned the island after WWII for full time jobs and better wages elsewhere and the colonos abandoned the sugar industry.

Central San Vicente siendo desmantelada .

Jos R. Abad writing in 1882 foresaw the end when he observed that the owners had insisted in expanding (investment of capital) by acquiring more powerful machinery and lands, absorbing every small agricultural plot and therefore eliminating other forms of agriculture, and eventually redistributing the riches of the land to the detriment of the island's social well being. Looking back, we could say that changes were to come with the whims of a more modern century and rethinking of the choices made under another set of circumstances.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Centrales in operation in 1940, location (closest town) and date they closed down: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) and San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES :
1. Manual of Sugar Companies. Farr & Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: desde la conquista hasta nuestros d as 1493-1955. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Sugar Is Essential to the Island of Réunion - Recipes

The Sugar Industry of Puerto Rico

La industria del az car en Puerto Rico

by Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane was brought to the New World from the Canary Islands by Christopher Columbus, and introduced into the island of Puerto Rico from Santo Domingo, in 1515, to be cultivated on the banks of the Toa river at the Crown's experimental farm.

The first grinding mill was established in A asco, by Tom s de Castell n in 1523 and was operated with oxen. From 1548 hundreds of mills operated by water power (norias) making moscabado sugar began operations. The industry was in the hands of small landowners whose enterprises succeeded or failed depending on the price of sugar in the market or the whims of the Spanish Crown.

The first "Centrales" or factories with equipment operated by steam were established from 1873 to 1876 - whereby the sugar crystals got separated from the molasses in centrifuges. The machinery was purchased in England or France. The outmoded smaller mills (trapiches) vanished after the end of slavery in 1873.

First factory to modernized by expanding its land holdings was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) and was soon followed by Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada), and Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), and Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruinas de la central San Vicente 1984.

At the 1882 Exposition in Ponce, two owners received gold and honorary medals for the high quality sugar obtained with the new process: these were Vadi and the Cabrera Brothers from the Boca Chica hacienda close to Ponce. But in 1882 there were still only five or six centrales working in the island of Puerto Rico.

Central Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Central San Vicente 1960 .

After sovereignty was transferred to the US in 1898, the industry grew with the impetus of the sugar interests from the mainland. From then until the Spring of 2000, when Coloso closed after its last harvest, sugar cane was the most important cash crop of the island of Puerto Rico. The industry struggled through the XX century with market price competition, a diminishing and expensive labor force, the cost of transportation, the sugar quota system and the need to fertilize and irrigate the land, so harsh that eventually became bankrupt. In 1936 there were approximately 43 centrales operating under a sugar quota of 909,445 short tons (2,000 lbs or net ton) This had been established by the Jones-Costigan Act, which allowed Puerto Rico to ship the raw product to the USA without payment of duty.

Thirty four centrales ceased operations between 1942 and 1977. The largest survived for another decade: Cambalache (Arecibo) and Gu nica (Ensenada) closed in 1981 to be followed by Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, and finally Coloso and Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. An industry and a way of life came to an end. The "colonos" or farmers who planted the crops and sent it to the factory to be processed, hardly ever saw their efforts compensated at the time their sugar was sold. The growing period for the crop usually took fourteen months or more, from planting during the last four months of the year until grinding began following January. It was necessary to replant every four years or so. Most raw sugar was shipped to refineries in the East Coast but by the second half of the century Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig and San Francisco had acquired refining machinery. The workers abandoned the island after WWII for full time jobs and better wages elsewhere and the colonos abandoned the sugar industry.

Central San Vicente siendo desmantelada .

Jos R. Abad writing in 1882 foresaw the end when he observed that the owners had insisted in expanding (investment of capital) by acquiring more powerful machinery and lands, absorbing every small agricultural plot and therefore eliminating other forms of agriculture, and eventually redistributing the riches of the land to the detriment of the island's social well being. Looking back, we could say that changes were to come with the whims of a more modern century and rethinking of the choices made under another set of circumstances.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Centrales in operation in 1940, location (closest town) and date they closed down: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) and San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES :
1. Manual of Sugar Companies. Farr & Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: desde la conquista hasta nuestros d as 1493-1955. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Sugar Is Essential to the Island of Réunion - Recipes

The Sugar Industry of Puerto Rico

La industria del az car en Puerto Rico

by Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane was brought to the New World from the Canary Islands by Christopher Columbus, and introduced into the island of Puerto Rico from Santo Domingo, in 1515, to be cultivated on the banks of the Toa river at the Crown's experimental farm.

The first grinding mill was established in A asco, by Tom s de Castell n in 1523 and was operated with oxen. From 1548 hundreds of mills operated by water power (norias) making moscabado sugar began operations. The industry was in the hands of small landowners whose enterprises succeeded or failed depending on the price of sugar in the market or the whims of the Spanish Crown.

The first "Centrales" or factories with equipment operated by steam were established from 1873 to 1876 - whereby the sugar crystals got separated from the molasses in centrifuges. The machinery was purchased in England or France. The outmoded smaller mills (trapiches) vanished after the end of slavery in 1873.

First factory to modernized by expanding its land holdings was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) and was soon followed by Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada), and Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), and Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruinas de la central San Vicente 1984.

At the 1882 Exposition in Ponce, two owners received gold and honorary medals for the high quality sugar obtained with the new process: these were Vadi and the Cabrera Brothers from the Boca Chica hacienda close to Ponce. But in 1882 there were still only five or six centrales working in the island of Puerto Rico.

Central Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Central San Vicente 1960 .

After sovereignty was transferred to the US in 1898, the industry grew with the impetus of the sugar interests from the mainland. From then until the Spring of 2000, when Coloso closed after its last harvest, sugar cane was the most important cash crop of the island of Puerto Rico. The industry struggled through the XX century with market price competition, a diminishing and expensive labor force, the cost of transportation, the sugar quota system and the need to fertilize and irrigate the land, so harsh that eventually became bankrupt. In 1936 there were approximately 43 centrales operating under a sugar quota of 909,445 short tons (2,000 lbs or net ton) This had been established by the Jones-Costigan Act, which allowed Puerto Rico to ship the raw product to the USA without payment of duty.

Thirty four centrales ceased operations between 1942 and 1977. The largest survived for another decade: Cambalache (Arecibo) and Gu nica (Ensenada) closed in 1981 to be followed by Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, and finally Coloso and Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. An industry and a way of life came to an end. The "colonos" or farmers who planted the crops and sent it to the factory to be processed, hardly ever saw their efforts compensated at the time their sugar was sold. The growing period for the crop usually took fourteen months or more, from planting during the last four months of the year until grinding began following January. It was necessary to replant every four years or so. Most raw sugar was shipped to refineries in the East Coast but by the second half of the century Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig and San Francisco had acquired refining machinery. The workers abandoned the island after WWII for full time jobs and better wages elsewhere and the colonos abandoned the sugar industry.

Central San Vicente siendo desmantelada .

Jos R. Abad writing in 1882 foresaw the end when he observed that the owners had insisted in expanding (investment of capital) by acquiring more powerful machinery and lands, absorbing every small agricultural plot and therefore eliminating other forms of agriculture, and eventually redistributing the riches of the land to the detriment of the island's social well being. Looking back, we could say that changes were to come with the whims of a more modern century and rethinking of the choices made under another set of circumstances.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Centrales in operation in 1940, location (closest town) and date they closed down: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) and San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES :
1. Manual of Sugar Companies. Farr & Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: desde la conquista hasta nuestros d as 1493-1955. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Sugar Is Essential to the Island of Réunion - Recipes

The Sugar Industry of Puerto Rico

La industria del az car en Puerto Rico

by Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane was brought to the New World from the Canary Islands by Christopher Columbus, and introduced into the island of Puerto Rico from Santo Domingo, in 1515, to be cultivated on the banks of the Toa river at the Crown's experimental farm.

The first grinding mill was established in A asco, by Tom s de Castell n in 1523 and was operated with oxen. From 1548 hundreds of mills operated by water power (norias) making moscabado sugar began operations. The industry was in the hands of small landowners whose enterprises succeeded or failed depending on the price of sugar in the market or the whims of the Spanish Crown.

The first "Centrales" or factories with equipment operated by steam were established from 1873 to 1876 - whereby the sugar crystals got separated from the molasses in centrifuges. The machinery was purchased in England or France. The outmoded smaller mills (trapiches) vanished after the end of slavery in 1873.

First factory to modernized by expanding its land holdings was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) and was soon followed by Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada), and Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), and Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruinas de la central San Vicente 1984.

At the 1882 Exposition in Ponce, two owners received gold and honorary medals for the high quality sugar obtained with the new process: these were Vadi and the Cabrera Brothers from the Boca Chica hacienda close to Ponce. But in 1882 there were still only five or six centrales working in the island of Puerto Rico.

Central Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Central San Vicente 1960 .

After sovereignty was transferred to the US in 1898, the industry grew with the impetus of the sugar interests from the mainland. From then until the Spring of 2000, when Coloso closed after its last harvest, sugar cane was the most important cash crop of the island of Puerto Rico. The industry struggled through the XX century with market price competition, a diminishing and expensive labor force, the cost of transportation, the sugar quota system and the need to fertilize and irrigate the land, so harsh that eventually became bankrupt. In 1936 there were approximately 43 centrales operating under a sugar quota of 909,445 short tons (2,000 lbs or net ton) This had been established by the Jones-Costigan Act, which allowed Puerto Rico to ship the raw product to the USA without payment of duty.

Thirty four centrales ceased operations between 1942 and 1977. The largest survived for another decade: Cambalache (Arecibo) and Gu nica (Ensenada) closed in 1981 to be followed by Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, and finally Coloso and Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. An industry and a way of life came to an end. The "colonos" or farmers who planted the crops and sent it to the factory to be processed, hardly ever saw their efforts compensated at the time their sugar was sold. The growing period for the crop usually took fourteen months or more, from planting during the last four months of the year until grinding began following January. It was necessary to replant every four years or so. Most raw sugar was shipped to refineries in the East Coast but by the second half of the century Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig and San Francisco had acquired refining machinery. The workers abandoned the island after WWII for full time jobs and better wages elsewhere and the colonos abandoned the sugar industry.

Central San Vicente siendo desmantelada .

Jos R. Abad writing in 1882 foresaw the end when he observed that the owners had insisted in expanding (investment of capital) by acquiring more powerful machinery and lands, absorbing every small agricultural plot and therefore eliminating other forms of agriculture, and eventually redistributing the riches of the land to the detriment of the island's social well being. Looking back, we could say that changes were to come with the whims of a more modern century and rethinking of the choices made under another set of circumstances.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Centrales in operation in 1940, location (closest town) and date they closed down: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) and San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES :
1. Manual of Sugar Companies. Farr & Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: desde la conquista hasta nuestros d as 1493-1955. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


Sugar Is Essential to the Island of Réunion - Recipes

The Sugar Industry of Puerto Rico

La industria del az car en Puerto Rico

by Emilia Badillo Joy

ugar cane was brought to the New World from the Canary Islands by Christopher Columbus, and introduced into the island of Puerto Rico from Santo Domingo, in 1515, to be cultivated on the banks of the Toa river at the Crown's experimental farm.

The first grinding mill was established in A asco, by Tom s de Castell n in 1523 and was operated with oxen. From 1548 hundreds of mills operated by water power (norias) making moscabado sugar began operations. The industry was in the hands of small landowners whose enterprises succeeded or failed depending on the price of sugar in the market or the whims of the Spanish Crown.

The first "Centrales" or factories with equipment operated by steam were established from 1873 to 1876 - whereby the sugar crystals got separated from the molasses in centrifuges. The machinery was purchased in England or France. The outmoded smaller mills (trapiches) vanished after the end of slavery in 1873.

First factory to modernized by expanding its land holdings was San Vicente (Leonardo Igaravides in Vega Baja) and was soon followed by Coloso (Emilio Vadi in Aguada), and Luisa (Maunabo), San Felipe (Naguabo), San Luis (Carolina), and Josefina (R o Piedras).
Ruinas de la central San Vicente 1984.

At the 1882 Exposition in Ponce, two owners received gold and honorary medals for the high quality sugar obtained with the new process: these were Vadi and the Cabrera Brothers from the Boca Chica hacienda close to Ponce. But in 1882 there were still only five or six centrales working in the island of Puerto Rico.

Central Coloso, Aguada, en ruinas. Central San Vicente 1960 .

After sovereignty was transferred to the US in 1898, the industry grew with the impetus of the sugar interests from the mainland. From then until the Spring of 2000, when Coloso closed after its last harvest, sugar cane was the most important cash crop of the island of Puerto Rico. The industry struggled through the XX century with market price competition, a diminishing and expensive labor force, the cost of transportation, the sugar quota system and the need to fertilize and irrigate the land, so harsh that eventually became bankrupt. In 1936 there were approximately 43 centrales operating under a sugar quota of 909,445 short tons (2,000 lbs or net ton) This had been established by the Jones-Costigan Act, which allowed Puerto Rico to ship the raw product to the USA without payment of duty.

Thirty four centrales ceased operations between 1942 and 1977. The largest survived for another decade: Cambalache (Arecibo) and Gu nica (Ensenada) closed in 1981 to be followed by Aguirre (Salinas) in 1990, Mercedita in 1994, La Plata (San Sebasti n) 1996, and finally Coloso and Roig (Yabucoa) in 2000. An industry and a way of life came to an end. The "colonos" or farmers who planted the crops and sent it to the factory to be processed, hardly ever saw their efforts compensated at the time their sugar was sold. The growing period for the crop usually took fourteen months or more, from planting during the last four months of the year until grinding began following January. It was necessary to replant every four years or so. Most raw sugar was shipped to refineries in the East Coast but by the second half of the century Gu nica, Mercedita, Igualdad, Roig and San Francisco had acquired refining machinery. The workers abandoned the island after WWII for full time jobs and better wages elsewhere and the colonos abandoned the sugar industry.

Central San Vicente siendo desmantelada .

Jos R. Abad writing in 1882 foresaw the end when he observed that the owners had insisted in expanding (investment of capital) by acquiring more powerful machinery and lands, absorbing every small agricultural plot and therefore eliminating other forms of agriculture, and eventually redistributing the riches of the land to the detriment of the island's social well being. Looking back, we could say that changes were to come with the whims of a more modern century and rethinking of the choices made under another set of circumstances.

Ruinas de lo que fue la Central San Vicente.

Centrales in operation in 1940, location (closest town) and date they closed down: Playa Grande in Vieques (1942) Carmen in Vega Alta (1945) Caribe in Salinas (1946) Boca Chica in Juana D az (1946) Herminia in Villalba (1947) Santa Barbara in Jayuya (1948) Pellejas in Adjuntas (1949) San Jose in R o Piedras (1952) Constancia in Ponce (1954) Rochelaise in Mayag ez (1957) Victoria in Carolina (1957) Pasto Viejo in Humacao (1958), Ejemplo in Humacao (1961) Constancia in Toa Baja (1962) Guaman in Guayama (1963) Juanita in Bayam n (1963) Plazuela in Barceloneta (1963).

Can vanas in Lo za (1965) Santa Juana in Caguas (1966) Cayey in Cayey (1967) Machete in Guayama (1967) Rufina in Guayanilla (1967) San Vicente in Vega Baja (1967) Soller in Camuy (1968) R o LLano in Camuy (1970) Lafayette in Arroyo (1971) Los Ca os in Arecibo (1972) Monserate in Manat (1972) Juncos in Juncos (1973) Cortada in Santa Isabel (1974) Eureka in Hormigueros (1977) Fajardo in Fajardo (1977) Igualdad in A asco (1977) and San Francisco in Guayanilla (1977).

FUENTES :
1. Manual of Sugar Companies. Farr & Co, New York, 1937.
2. Gaztambide y Ar n. La Isla de Puerto Rico. Rand MacNally y Co., 1941.
3. Hern ndez M ndez, Eugenio. Cr nicas de Puerto Rico: desde la conquista hasta nuestros d as 1493-1955. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1969.


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